The Enlightenment: Crash Course European History #18

Hi I’m John Green and this is Crash Course
European History. So far, we’ve seen a ton of political change
and continuing warfare in the midst of the seventeenth century’s little ice age, and
history often focuses on these types of political and military stories, but there were also
other changes occurring: shifts in how people perceived the everyday world. The linking of phenomena like earthquakes
and eclipses with human events goes back a very long way, like to the beginning of our
species, as does the belief that supernatural forces are deeply shaping the lives of individual
humans. For instance, in a previous video about witchcraft,
we discussed how earthquake tremors in Istanbul in 1648 were seen as portents of a sultan’s
death a few months later. But a century after that, a huge earthquake
struck Lisbon, Portugal on All Saints’ Day of 1755. Tens of thousands of people died, many from
a tsunami that followed the quake. Now, some theologians argued this was punishment
from God for the world’s sins, but others pointed out that the earthquake had destroyed
a lot of churches while sparing a lot of brothels. Voltaire wrote a famous poem in response to
the earthquake that included the memorable lines “As the dying voices call out, will
you dare respond to this appalling spectacle of smoking ashes with, “This is the necessary
effect of the eternal laws Freely chosen by God?” The way Europeans were looking at the world
had changed between the Istanbul earthquake and the Lisbon one: The Enlightenment was
thriving. [Intro]
So, today we want to emphasize that the Enlightenment wasn’t all high fallutin’ calculations
of the sun’s orbit or theories about the mathematical laws of the universe or for that
matter theories about earthquake causality. It also considered more down-to-earth situations
like how people of different social classes relate to one another, how trade and manufacturing
should function, and what the relationship of ordinary people should be to their government. The Enlightenment or Age of Light refers to
the belief that the musty old ideas needed to be exposed to rational investigation to
see if they were still valuable. The bright light of reason needed to shine
on tradition. And this momentous challenge to tradition
came about during a time in which Europe was being completely transformed in many ways
that are sometimes forgotten amid all the excitement about Voltaire and reason. So let’s go straight to the Thought Bubble
today. 1. Beyond the wars and state-building we’ve
already seen, 2. increasing abundance and novelty was creeping
into the everyday lives of Europeans. 3. Coffee, tea, chocolate, tobacco, and other
commodities led to experimentation. 4. For instance, one English housewife saw tea
for the first time and thought it was meant to be baked as a kind of pie filling. 5. A diplomat said that tea and coffee had brought
a greater “sobriety” and “civility” to everyday life in Europe. 6. Europe had previously been a land of famine
and mere subsistence for essentially all of its history. 7. But now the cultivation of new foods from
the Americas like potatoes and corn, 8. along with literally thousands of other
new plants, meant that available calories were increasing, 9. And it also introduced the idea that maybe
the world didn’t have to be perpetually on the brink of starvation and catastrophe. 10. Also, by this time, tens of thousands of Europeans
had traveled the world, and had experienced other social orders first hand. 11. For instance, travelers discovered that people
across Asia didn’t seem as quarrelsome as Europeans. 12. Drivers of carts did not block narrow streets
for hours arguing over who had the right of way. 13. They politely agreed to let one or the other
pass. 14. They also saw that not all social orders were
as hierarchical as most European ones, 15. and that some societies even gave less
weight to a person’s parentage 16. and more to that person’s individual
skills and talents. Thanks Thought Bubble. [[TV-Montesquieu]] One of the first ways writers
criticized outmoded ways of life was to make fun of them…writers like Charles-Louis de
Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu, aka Just Montesquieu. (He really was the person to criticize outmoded
ways of life because, boy did he have an outmoded name.) Montesquieu was a jurist who owned an estate
near Bordeaux, which still makes wine under his name, and in 1721, he published the Persian
Letters in which Uzbek visitors find Europe amusing if not shocking. The visitors, for instance, are amazed at
the magic of priests who somehow perform the trick of turning wine into blood. And although they clearly see the problems
in French society, they firmly adhere to the mustiness of their own ways, such as keeping
women secluded in a harem and guarded by eunuchs. The message was that both easterners and Europeans
were imperfect. The author Voltaire–who, slightly off topic,
was very handsome. I mean, very striking eyes. At any rate, he had similarly critical and
amusing takes; his discourtesy to aristocrats eventually got him sent to the Bastille prison,
in fact. In many rollicking tales, he made fun of overweening
rulers and their endless corruptions. He valued honesty and those who lived simple
lives “cultivating their gardens,” as he famously put it in his satirical novel
Candide (1759), which you can learn more about in Crash Course Literature. Full of horrors and injustice, Candide appeared
four years after the Lisbon earthquake, which Voltaire thought was firm evidence that we
did not live in the best of all possible worlds. To replace the old stuffy ways of monarchs
and aristocrats, people needed to learn how to embrace the newly-desirable traits of the
Enlightenment, like being honest, and inquisitive, and open. Swiss thinker Jean-Jacques Rousseau had many
ideas about education reform, for instance. He was not a wealthy or titled person but
rather was born into a watchmaking family and lived among artisans. His best-selling novel Emile (1762) describes
a boy who grows up not in a city or palace but in a countryside where one can be oneself—a
natural individual. Instead of experiencing common rote learning,
with large doses of religious and classical reading, Emile learns carpentry, and gardening,
and other practical skills. In the countryside he behaves in the best
possible way—naturally and without pretentious airs. Rousseau promoted what would come to be called
middle-class values, like hard work, practicality, and domesticity for women. When Emile becomes a young man, the spouse
chosen for him is plump and smiling and devoted to taking care of him—not studying or reading
or practicing a craft or working hard to support the family like farm women did. Also, she will breast feed their children,
whereas both aristocratic women and busy working women at the time commonly used wet nurses. As with Emile’s upbringing, all of this
is presented as “natural.” Meanwhile, wealthy women in Europe instituted
the Enlightenment salon: regular get-togethers in their homes to hear the latest idea, learn
about the latest book, or meet the latest philosopher-influencer—called a philosophe
in French. Slightly off topic, but I just love the idea
of Rousseau and Voltaire as influencers. Like, I would have loved to see their instagram
feeds. Voltaire’s smoldering selfies,
Rousseau’s weird rants written in the notes app and then screenshotted. It would have been gold. At any rate, 18th Century Salon goers were
often great readers or experimenters with the latest commodities and fashion. Just like contemporary influencers, actually. And in terms of fashion, instead of looking
to the courts for fashion inspiration, men like Voltaire now sported cottons from India
made into handkerchiefs that were worn around the neck, which would soon metamorphose into
the necktie). They also sported banyans—that is loose
bathrobe type garments—that did not need corsets, which men traditionally wore. As Rousseau believed, men should take off
their make-up, wigs, and high heels and be natural—just like people did in other parts
of the world. Just natural man as he is naturally made in
the countryside, wearing a Banyan and a feathered hat. Transformation was in the air for everyone,
not just the elites. Although imported foreign cottons were still
illegal in France, for instance, many people now wore them, including servants, who received
cast-off cotton dresses or shirts that were bright and easy to keep clean. And to help people learn, there were many
more texts. Like in France, there was the Encyclopedie
(you’ll notice my amazing French pronunciation). It provided discussions of topics such as
natural rights and the status of women. Its main editor Denis Diderot wrote: “All
things must be examined, debated, investigated without exception and without regard for anyone’s
feelings.”[1] Diderot favored social and political reform. But the Encyclopedie–you know what, I’m
gonna just translate it–Encyclopedia, also contained technical drawings of machinery,
including machinery for mining. And that reflected practical values and also
provided a spur to inventiveness and growing prosperity in Europe. Also, mining, which was already pretty important,
was about to become EXTREMELY important, thanks to coal. In general, Enlightenment aims were more worldly
than spiritual. In Scotland, philosopher David Hume promoted
reason above religion, concluding that belief in God was mere superstition. Some people, called Deists, argued that God
existed but that he didn’t influence everyday life after having set the machine of the universe
in motion. Many important “founding fathers” of the
United States were deists, and if you believe, as many philosphers did, that God keeps a
distance from human affairs, then the persecution of people for their religious beliefs starts
to seem like cruel fanaticism. And some philosophes became activists. Like, Voltaire was outraged by the torture
of Jean Calas, who had been accused of murdering his son to prevent him from converting to
Catholicism. (Calas’s son had in fact committed suicide
due to gambling debts.) Calas was waterboarded and had every bone
in his body broken before eventually dying under torture. Is there a bone back there? All right, listen. This is a femur. I don’t think this is an actual femur, I
think it’s, like a recrea–Stan is this a real femur? It is NOT a real femur. So I asked our brilliant writer Bonnie if
Calas really had every bone in his body broken and she repsonded, “It’s hard to know
whether they got every one,” and then she described Calas’s torture to me with a level
of detail that led me to conclude that ONE they probably did break every bone in his
body, and TWO oh my god torture in 18th century Europe was THE WORST. So, last thing I’m going to say about this:
if you invent a time machine, and I believe absolutely that you can, do not go back in
time before like, maybe 2003? Don’t get me wrong–things are bad, but
remember: they used to be so much worse. Speaking of terrible, let’s talk about slavery. So, Enlightenment views also fed into rising
movements in Britain, France, the Netherlands, and their colonies to abolish slavery. By this time, the slave trade was massive
and there was growing acknowledgement of its cruelt. In 1770, the French Catholic abbé (or, clergyman)
Guillaume Raynal laid out the violent devastation of native peoples by invading Europeans. And in 1788 the freed slave Olaudah Equiano
described the middle passage after he had been kidnapped in present-day Nigeria and
enslaved. Now Equiano is often believed to have been
born in South Carolina, and his riveting memoir may have been cobbled together from the harrowing
tales of others. Still, it was a bestseller. It captured the inhumanity of whites towards
blacks, advocated Enlightenment freedom and human rights for all. It also stirred freedmen and slaves to struggle
for abolition. And there was also growing movements for other
kinds of freedom. The Scotsman Adam Smith took on the mercantilist
theory that global wealth was static and states could only increase wealth by taking it from
others when he rejected ideas about stockpiling gold, and refusing entry of goods into one’s
country, and also remaining a subsistence agricultural economy with serfs. He advocated for manufacturing, the division
of labor, and free trade. In a free or laissez-faire market, an individual
would work and interact with others in the economy on the basis of their self-interest. And the sum of all self-interests would make
for a balanced, harmonious, and prosperous society. Smith is best known as the father of the free
market, free trade, and individualism thanks to his 1776 book An Inquiry into the Nature
and Causes of The Wealth of Nations. But he also opposed absolutism and urged concern
for the overall well-being of society. In addition to the benefits of laissez-faire
that he saw, Smith saw the potential harms, so he also argued for healing social policies. Another important Enlightenment book was Jean-Jacques
Rousseau’s The Social Contract, which famously begins “Man is born free and everywhere
he is in chains.” Rousseau picked up on John Locke’s theme
of the contract that individuals made with one another to form a state or nation. And he believed that Once freely formed, the
state embodied the best that was in the collective community; thus individuals needed to give
the state unconditional obedience because it represented the “general will.” Today, thinkers see that this call for obedience
to the general will planted the seeds of dictatorial governments in the twentieth century and beyond. But, Rousseau did also emphasize individual
sentiments as valuable. At the opposite end of Rousseau’s “general
will” was German philosopher Emmanuel Kant’s attention to individual reason. He famously exclaimed, “Dare to Know”
as he advanced the Enlightenment’s commitment to the human mind and the ability of every
person to think for themselves instead of simply obeying old commands and ideas. The human mind, he argued, housed “categories
of understanding” with which information interacted to produce purely rational judgments. And in this way, Kant shared the faith in
the individual of both Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Adam Smith, and we can trace our own culture’s
individualism back to the Enlightenment. And many other individuals took refuge in
Enlightenment thought as well as taking it as a call to action. Upper-class Jewish women across Europe found
the world of ideas so inspiring that they began salons, too. In Berlin, they established nine of the fourteen
salons in the city. And philosopher and author Moses Mendelssohn
used the more tolerant atmosphere to express his optimism about the future of Jews in Europe. Because of the Enlightenment emphasis on reason,
he believed that the age-old persecution of Jews would soon end. Of course, we now know that that wasn’t
the case. And much exploitation and oppression has taken
place in the guise of reasoned thought. Pseudoscientific “reason” has been used
to justify many forms of structural inequality, from racism to sexism to class systems. Rationality would not prove to be a way out
of the human urge to create and marginalize outsiders. But Enlightenment thought was nonetheless
transformative, and seeking worldly explanations for inequality and injustice did have significant
real-world consequences. I mean, no longer would we see Earthquakes
merely as acts of God. Enlightenment challenges to the idea that
we already were living in the best of all possible worlds would help us to imagine,
and eventually live in, better worlds–albeit ones that are still profoundly imperfect. Thanks for watching. I’ll see you next time. ________________
[1] Quoted in Lynn Hunt et al., The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures, 6th ed. (Boston: Bedford St. Martins,
2019) 616.

100 Replies to “The Enlightenment: Crash Course European History #18

  1. My grandmother told me how when she gave her first white friends avocado, they invited her round for avocado and custard!!

  2. Too bad this didn't spread to china.. Got avoid drinking that cold water in 2019 because my grandma's grandma told her it was bad. And I can't ever know better than they did because of this nonsensical ancestor worship.

  3. You should make an Episode about Ancient Kush since it was the root for the egyptian civilisation and it will correct alot of your information about that era and that particular region of the world.

  4. Really I love crash course
    But, what's your advice to me as English isn't my mother language ?!…
    Waiting for your advices… 💙

  5. Smith moved back with his mother to write "The Wealth of Nations" in order to not need to pay rent, and relied on her providing him with unpaid housekeeping services…

  6. Early capitalists: "maybe if we improve productivity in agriculture, thousands of people don't have to be one famine away from death"

    Late capitalists: "Or alternatively, they could be?"

  7. Interesting when I look up the Persian letters it says the characters were Persian not Uzbek, but one of them was named Usbek. Does anyone know anymore about the subject?

  8. I feel like these comments are skipping over the fact that apparently europeans would argue in the street for hours about who could pass? Like what was everyone just really petty?

  9. Heyyy John Green…
    There's this question that has been killing me…
    Its about your book The Fault In Our Stars…
    Does Hazel die after the end of the book because of her sickness??
    Please answer….

  10. Honesty, Inquisitiveness, Openness.. Social gatherings that foster learning For Fun. Ignoring unjust or over reaching Law,, "Natural Individual" "Dare to Know. "All things must be examined, Debated, investigated without exception and without regard for anyone's feelings"..?.. This Enlightenment thing sounds nice. About time for a refresher coarse I think..

  11. Can the person responsible for Crash Course please steer John Green away from all French words and names, and English imports such as lah-say-fair?

  12. The modern "culture of individualism" is definitely not an enlightenment achievement just thrown out there like I feel like was implied here. This is something specifically american that did not appear anywhere in the world in this same manner up until the cold war period – and was perpetuated in the way we see "individualism" manifested today as a vector of cold war politics.

  13. 12:35 Okay we all know about the philosophy behind free markets, but can we talk about its assumptions?
    1. That individual self interests can contradict, and even act against the self interests of others.
    2. That, all things being equal, all self interests will negate the negative aspects of other's self interests and enhance the benefits.
    3. That all individuals have different self interests, and that there is no minority self interest.
    So basically, it works if: everyone has the same chance of success as everyone else, everyone keeps every other person in check, there are no minorities being outspoken in this conflict of interests, and that there's a self interest to counter every negative aspect of every other self interest, but that they don't affect the benefits in the same manner.
    please, if I forgot one, or misinterpreted something, let me know.

  14. I like this show, but you've got to get it on a more regular release schedule. It's nearly impossible to follow under the current circumstances.

  15. I love watching crack course. It opens my mind to new ideas and to build apon others. And makes me more understanding and accepting of indifference.

  16. Calas was taken through the streets to the city’s main square, then led up to a scaffold and tied to an X-shaped cross. Whereupon an executioner, iron rod in hand, crushed Calas’s bones, two blows apiece to the upper and lower arms, two to the upper and lower legs, three to the midsection. Calas, his body broken, was then tied to a wheel, face to the sky, where, for two hours, he refused to convert and refused to confess.

    “I die innocent,” he said.

  17. HOLD UP: I was enjoying this until you got to the part about reason not being the answer for social problems. The terms used were, “under the guise of”, at 15:11, and, “pseudo-scientific reason”. In both cases, the phrases used imply an ABSENCE of reason. Obviously, being literally unreasonable isn’t going to solve problems. Therefore, I disagree with that premise. The values of the enlightenment are still moving us forward today.

  18. As a philosophy enthusiast I am very happy to see more than Voltaire and Rousseau being covered. Especially happy about Hume and Kant who have had as much if not more of an effect in History than the other two (yes I know about the revolution and yes I know Voltaire slept w the King of Prussia and yes I know it's not a competition, but trust me when I say Hume and Kant planted the seeds for the 19th Century).

  19. To understand all those crimes that Religion of juzsys did, we need to understand their way of deal with those situations. It is written on the bible that juzsys is the ONLY way to reach god! Thus if you are not with juzsys you are with SATAN! Questioning juzsys are BLASPHEMY. A sin without forgive. It is a real philosophy for IDIOTS! It was created to submit/control the Roman Provinces! And even today question, true DEBATES about the FANTASY/FABLE of juzsys is auto-censored on the news!

  20. This is coming out at the perfect time as i’m taking AP World History and currently learning and reading about the enlightenment

  21. God was okay with the whores. They were being true to themselves.

    God was not okay with the religious leaders, who were probably taking advantage of little boys.

  22. So I read a lot about 1 or 2 books a week for school,and I have read about half of the philosophers in this video and most of there reasoning starts from severely biased opinions.

  23. I'm so glad that you referred to the long-term consequences of the "Enlightenment." It's especially important to go into those consequences in great detail, though, especially because you referred to predictions of a brighter future for Jews. The "Enlightenment" actually played a huge part in setting up the horrifying future that came in the 1900s, to be honest. It's one reason why the Postmodernist movement gathered so much steam after WWII.

    Do you have a follow-up video on how the "Enlightenment" might have been a figment of social imagination, like the "Dark Ages" and the "Renaissance." if not you could especially hit on Robert Darnton's observations that the trashy romance novels and porn had as much, if not more, influence over rich European attitudes than the "great works" of these high-minded "philosophes." Many of the people executed for being corrupt royalty or nobility during the French Revolution, many of them guilty in some way or another, left behind libraries with the works of the "philosopher" featured prominently in them. In other words, yes, people may have quoted these guys, but how much did readers really care about their ideas? Did people glorify salons because it was the "in-thing?" Hypocrisy abounded. There are historians who have argued that the "Enlightenment" was, in part, made up by leaders of 18th century revolutions whenever they pulled the authors of works that supposedly inspired them into a body of literature.

    Then, you could explore how the toxic European obsession with "Reason" ended up escalating to the point of setting up genocides from the 1800s to the present. "Enlightenment" economic theory became the backbone of modern racial theory, which fueled imperialism and by extension: concentration camps and genocides in Africa, Asia, and South America; eugenics; classism; sexism; and modern stigmas against mental illness and disabilities.

  24. 0:00 Answers vary
    0:47 Earthquake in Lisbon Portugal
    2:51 Luxuries included coffee tea chocolate tobacco
    3:41 Travellers to Asia were impressed with how much less quarrelsome they were
    4:29 Montesquieu wrote Persian letters
    5:06 Voltaire wrote Candide
    6:18 Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote Emile
    7:18 Women hosted the enlightenment salon to share ideas or to meet a philosopher called a philosophe
    8:56 Denis Diderot edited the encyclopedia
    9:34 David Hume promoted reason above religion, Deists argued God existed but didn't influence everyday life
    11:23 Enlightenment views led to abolition of slavery
    11:42 Olaudah Equiano, a freed slave, described the middle passage after being enslaved
    13:00 An Inquiry into… was written by Adam Smith
    13:21 Rousseau' wrote The Social Contract. He discussed the General Will
    14:04 Immanuel Kant argued everyone should think for themselves
    14:51 Moses Mendelssohn believed enlightenment would lead to the end of Jewish persecution
    16:22 Enlightenment leads to individualism (answers vary)

    Tldr: Europeans decided life sucks and women spilled some tea

  25. " A letter to Crash Course"
    Dear John Green,
    Thank you for developing Crash Course into a great educational tool. It has been inspiring to watch you develop this platform into a resource that is relatable. I use it often as a supplement to my Eighth grade U.S. History course. Based on the changing styles of production from US History made years ago and the new European series, you have grown and matured. My students love them and many honest and (relatively) mature conversations are sparked. The unassuming production and script allows them to understand the content without being overwhelmed by the sometimes complex topics.
    Thank you for Crash Course.
    Matt Stretanski

  26. Kudos to you for knowing how to pronounce "Encyclopédie" thanks to your French courses. Could have been better for "Montesquieu" and "laissez-faire", though! 😀

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