Reviewing Literature (Contd.)

Welcome back to the MOOC course on Research
Writing. My name is Aradhana Malik and I am helping
you with this course and we have we started with the module on literature review. In the previous class, we talked about what
literature review was and how you actually start keeping the records of your literature. Now in this class, we are going to talk about
how you start reading, how do you take down your notes, what do you look for when you
go through literature of any kind so that is what we will talk about. It is very very essential to know how to read
in addition to knowing, how to write it is very essential to know what to read what to
look for in any kind of paper. So, let us see what we have for you reviewing
literature. Now, before you start writing or before you
start reviewing literature you need to have a clear problem statement, you need to know;
what you are looking for you need to know; what it is that you want to find out in the
previous class, we talked about this. You know the table that I told you to make
very very essential, it is very helpful. So, you need to know what you are looking
for and we did an exercise where we look for information on how to I mean on research writing
as a field now. So, you need to know what your problem statement
is you need to list the research question you need to list your assumptions, you need
to make a clear and detailed outline you need to have a detailed annotated bibliography. So, this is the annotated bibliography this
is the annotated bibliography here. So, you need to have a detailed annotated
bibliography and then you need to organise your references you need to match it with
the outline that you have then you need list your references in a separate document I will
show you how each of these things is done very essential to keep the record. So, you need to know first 2 or 3 things,
you need to know what it is that you are looking for you need to know what you need to find
answers to why am I doing it, what do I need to find answers to all these questions should
be foremost in your mind when you are reading something and your assumptions and then you
of course, and then you move on to physically doing the literature review. Now, this as you read this is whatever I am
presenting now is an outcome of personal correspondence with a senior professor at IIM Ahmadabad. So, this is directly from that correspondence
now and this is something you all follow, now as you read articles using quantitative
methods as the primary method for research you; what you do is note down the full reference
you first note down the complete reference as in here, this is a full reference. So, you note down the full reference. Then you identify the purpose or rationale
or justification you find out why the question that you that was attempted to be answered
was actually attempted to be answered why did the author spend so much time looking
for an answer to the question that here she asked. So, you find out why the paper was written
why was the document written in the first place then you identify the research objectives
how did the author go about answering the questions here. So, why research objectives what did he author
want to achieve. So, this is this what did the author what
kinds of milestones did the author want to achieve in a quest to answer the questions
that were asked here and then you identify what the answers to the research questions
were and what did they add to what was already known. So, you identify again you will find all these
information in the abstract excuse me. So, you identify what the answers to each
of the research questions were and how they added value or how the added to what was already
known researches about creating value or researches about adding to the existing knowledge base. So, what did they find out that was not already
known earlier. Then you study the conceptual of framework
used what constructs have been used and is the justification for the use of these constructs
study the phenomenon of interest clear. So, what has been studied what constructs
what concepts have been used and in a an attempt to find out what you wanted to find out are
the reasons for studying a abc concepts really justified or should you have studied some
other constructs in order to answer the questions that you are trying to answer. So, you need to know whether the author really
took the right approach in studying whatever the author was studying. Then identify the propositions developed through
the conceptual framework and study their translation into relevant hypotheses is the operationalization
clear identify. So, you find out what the author was trying
to study why the author was trying to study what the author was trying to study and was
the were the propositions or whatever the author proposed in converted appropriately
into the relevant hypotheses is the operationalization clear was the author able to convert the questions
that here she wanted to ask or convert me the way the questions were being attempted
to ask sorry can we please pause for a second I would like to do this slide again [FL],
thank you. So, now next is you identify the propositions
developed through the conceptual framework and you study there translation into relevant
hypotheses is the operationalization clear you find out, how this conceptualization has
lead to proposition when we do quantitative method when we use quantitative methods we
are trying to either predict something or forecast something or generalise something
or becomes you know get some specific answers. So, in order to do that we need to have clear
statement we need to have clear propositions now what you need to find out is have the
concepts accurately lead to these propositions or not. So, that is something that you will need to
study. Identify the steps in the research design,
if possible, draw a flow chart to depict, these what was the research design like what
did the author do you know. So, you use a flow chart to depict the steps
in the research design, then what were the methods of data collection used what kinds
of methods were used is the unit of data collection obvious what kinds of data were collected,
what was what did the author, how did the author go and find out whatever here she wanted
to find out, what were the data points what were the units of data collection why were
they selected, how were they selected and can you easily see from, what is presented
as to what these units were are the data screening procedures described adequately. So, when we go out and collect data we also
find out whether the data make sense to us or not at times we need to filter the sense
making data from the data that does not make sense which is purely information. So, we think, we have found the data that
we were looking for and then we go through it, we evaluate it and then we realise that
some of the data is useful some of the data make sense, but the other part of it is just
pure information it is not real data that we can use for our study. So, you need to find out whether the screening
procedure for selecting the sense making data are adequate or not and are the screening
procedure described adequately is the method of filtering out this sense making data from
the data that does not make sense clear or not. What were the techniques used for data analysis. So, how was data analysed and why and what
were the techniques that were used what methods were used to analyse the data. Then you study the findings or results what
are the conclusions drawn look for the linkages of what is said in the previous point to the
rationale or significance described earlier. So, what have I found out and why what I have
found out make sense? So, that is what is covered in the discussion
of results we will talk more about this as we move along, but you must study the discussion
of the results, what have I found out as a result of this study how or how have the results
been presented and how have the results been explained have they been explained light of
the literature that was reviewed in light of the significance that was presented or
not do they make sense to me or not. What are the limitations listed; now when
you are reading quantitative reports a significant number of limitations may be listed. So, what are these limitations do they make
sense to you or not are the ethics of the research described in terms of consent and
disclosure. So, if you’re dealing with human subjects
are we or any living beings are the ethics described or how has the data been collected
has it been collected through ethical means or not and have these methods have been described
or not. Summarise the key claims of the study which
you take up as premises for your own argument. So, after you have gone through all of these
what you do you go back and you fill up this table and then you make a judgement based
on all of these points as to you are reading the quantitative article. So, you understand whatever has been presented
you make a notes and then if you decided to use that article then what you do you go back
and you do what we did in the previous class you write down all of these and then you move
on. Now, as you read articles using qualitative
methods again you could have I hope the people who are undertaking this or who are who have
joined this course know the difference between in qualitative and quantitative research this
discussion is outside the preview of this class. So, I will not do much about on it; however,
if you want more details I have a previous course which is freely available on YouTube,
it is called qualitative research methods and there is a section there that talks about
the differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods. So, you can go through those lectures also
anyway so. When you are reading articles that have used
qualitative methods what you need to do is you need to note down the full reference as
you read previous type of articles and then you identify the purpose on rationale or justification
is the significance of the study apparent does it answer the question why is this question
important. So, you find out what the significance of
this article was is the tradition in which the study is located apparent. So, again when we talk about qualitative research
methods we have variety of traditions that we approach from. So, is that tradition apparent or not evaluate
the information provided about the researcher insofar as it is relevant to the purpose of
the study the participants and the site of the study this is important because usually
the researcher is the tool of data collection and inter-pretivist traditions emphasise the
explication of the researcher’s bias and interest. So, the researcher is a tool of data collection
you go out and you collect the data and you interact with the data and that in turn influences
how the data is captured and what is kept with you and what is left behind. So, since the researcher himself or herself
is the tool data collection is very very important to evaluate the information that is provided
about the researcher it is very important to list the biases the assumptions that that
may have crept in to the collection even at the point of collection of data. And again that is part of qualitative research
we acknowledge that as an integral part of qualitative research a good qualitative research
dances between his or her own interaction with the data and the influence of his or
her own interaction with the data on the data itself and being an objective researcher observing
things from completely you know completely divorce from the situation. So, that happens in qualitative research. So, is the information on the site and participants
adequate to derive a good understanding of the setting? So, the information is the information where
you have collected the data from and the participants adequative to derive a good understanding
of the setting are you able to understand what is going on based on what you have interpreted
from this setting or not. So, we are talking about you reading an article
that uses qualitative researcher; excuse me. Then what are the guiding questions is the
process of question development made clear again when we talk about qualitative research
we do not immediately start a research questions the questions develop the questions evolve
as a result of this continued going back and forth you know into the data setting. So, it is an iterative process we do not really
start out with firm questions and then pause it hypotheses and then go about either defending
them or opposing them here in qualitative research the process of development of research
questions also takes up a significant amount of time. So, what are the guiding questions identify
the gas followed in the study note that iterative processes of data collection or analysis are
usually the norm. So, you go you collect the data come back
try to understand it you realize you need more data you go back you come back and then
you understand it then you look at it evaluate it and then you go back. So, this dance continues and you collect the
data you analyse it you go back collect data you analyse it and that in turn excuse me
forms the bulk of your study. So, you need to identify the gaps followed
in the study how has one gap identification of one gas sorry one gap lead to the collection
of the data and analysis of data and how is that analysis lead to an in the identification
of another gap that could be related to the first gap and so on are the data collection
procedures including recording or note taking described well in qualitative research extensive
notes to be taken extensive recording needs to be done. So, has that been described well or not are
ethical requirements related to enlisting people and data collection described were
any guidelines followed then in a study involving other participants what was the role of the
author in collecting data. So, that is again what did the author do what
was the goal of the author in collecting data how did the author go and collect the data
if there were other participants who were also you know involved in data collection
and analysis. So, what was what was the roll how did the
author interact with those participants or distance himself or herself from those participants,
because the qualitative research again the author himself or herself becomes the tool
of data collection and could be interacting with different stages of the process and influencing
it in the process are the procedures used for data processing and analysis described
adequately. So, how you process the data how have you
analyse the data what were the findings and how are they presented what they discover
how were these findings presented how are they shared with the reader and how are they
described; how are they justified what are the quality checks described and how trustworthy
is the study. So, again in qualitative research there are
a number of checks that are described there are number of checks that your study goes
through. So, you need to justify use of those checks
and then again when you are reading qualitative papers you need to find out how trustworthy
the study is based on the quality check that have been placed there for instance what are
the member checks reported and how was the credibility of the interpretations established
many kinds qualitative research what we do is we collect the data and number of people
interpret it and then these interpretations are taken together and brought together and
then understood together from different perspectives. So, these this is called a member chain. That means, people who participated in the
data collection again become also become tools of collecting the same kind of data and then
the data is taken from various sources and it is triangulated as we say. So, different sources of data bring the data
together and it is looked at from various angles now what is the check in balance to
ensure that the data is interpreted in the in a similar manner know what is the briefing
to the members who are interpreting data what how are they briefed what are they told. So, all that has to be and all that is explained
in good papers on that have used qualitative research. So, that is again going to be very very essential
to see how does the study add to what is known about the phenomenon under study again what
is the significance why should why has author spend some time studying the phenomenon that
was studied. So, that is again very essential summarize
the key claims of the study which you take up as premises of your own arguments. So, while you are reading it again what you
do you go back and you put everything in here and that is really the last part when you
read something you must read it thoroughly you must understand it as thoroughly as possible. So, you know this is very very essential because
once you it takes initially it takes about you know it could take you about may be 2
to 3 days to understand one paper, but the advice that I give to my students is that
you must commit to writing hundred to 2 hundred words about whatever you knew things or whichever
whatever about the new things that you have learned during that day about you own area
of research. So, you read a paper you read a part of the
paper and record what you have written in terms of what you read and how it educates
you about your own area of study and you keep building a diary it could be online is better
because you just keep adding to it. So, you keep adding to it and you try understand
every paper thoroughly because all of these forms the basis for whatever knowledge you
are going to build later and the expression of that knowledge you may be creating knowledge,
but all that knowledge is of no use if you do not express it if you do not share it with
the right people with the people who can use it. So, that is why research writing is important. So, you add to the knowledge base and then
in order to do that you have to first understand how the knowledge base has been created you
need to read both quantitative and qualitative papers you need to understand what are the
definite outcomes and what are the outcomes in the grey areas qualitative research with
grey areas. So, it is very essential that before you embark
on any study you need to conduct a review of the literature and you need to get the
information from various sources. Whatever we have discussed in this class informs
you about how to tap into those sources and how to get the maximum out of them. So, again this check list may seem taunting;
however, it is not it is you know once you get the hang of it once you get use to looking
for these things, it becomes the process gets to be you know it gets faster, but in the
very beginning you could take may be again 2 to 3 may be even 5 days to read one paper. So, that is where we will end this lecture
now and we will continue with some more understanding on how to write or how to read up and how
to start writing a literature reviews. Thank you very much for listening.

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