Master of Research Q&A Webinar | October 2018


Hello, everyone. My name is Professor Lorne
Cummings. I’m the associate dean for higher degree research in the Faculty of Business
and Economics here at Macquarie University, and I oversee the Master of Research and the
PhD program for the faculty. I’d love to welcome you all for your time tonight to listen to
the webinar on our research training program, the Master of Research. You can start spinning
questions any time from now, basically. I won’t be able to answer them until after the
presentation, which should be about 45 minutes half an hour to 45 minutes. Yeah, so we’ll
get underway, then. So the research training program at Macquarie
is called the Master of Research. It’s a two-year program. We call it the BPhil/MRes, so it’s
a Bachelor of Philosophy slash Master of Research. So we really have the Bachelor of Philosophy,
which is the PhD program. We also have the Master of Philosophy and the Doctor
of Philosophy. So this is our two-year preparatory program called the BPhil/MRes.
The program’s offered in two identical formats: the BPhil/MRes to domestic students– students
enrol in a Master of Research, so the BPhil, what’s the difference between the Bachelor
of Philosophy and the Master of Research? Basically, it’s the exit. So, if you exit
after one year – so, it’s a two-year program – if you exit after one year, you exit with
a Bachelor of Philosophy. So, if you exit after two years, you complete the Master of
Research and you exit with a Master of Research. If you exit after one year, effectively, it’s
a Bachelor of Philosophy. For the international students, you enrol as an MRes. So, it’s basically
how you enrol. So, we have a two-year program. The first
year is equivalent to our old Honours program. So, in the past, we had a four plus four system,
where students would do a three-year Bachelors and then a one year Honours, which is an Honours
thesis, and then they will go on to a four-year PhD. That was eight years all-up. We’ve now,
with a Master of Research, have a three plus two plus three system. So the three-year Bachelor
coursework, then a two-year Master of Research, and a three-year PhD. So all we’re doing is
we’re taking one year from the old Honours program and one year from the PhD – old PhD
– program, created this two-year MRes. So, in the first year, it’s largely coursework.
It consists of a research communications unit called MRes-700, and that’s run, now, within
the faculties. And that focuses on issues around economic literacy and how to reference
things such as the philosophy of science; writing conventions; how to create a bibliography;
that type of thing. So then, how to communicate your research. The purpose of general publications.
The purpose of your research and its impact on the broader community. There’s also a unit
called “research frontiers”, and that differs between the faculties, but in the Faculty
of Business and Economics, the research frontier unit is largely a seminar-based unit. So students
would attend research seminars within the faculty and then provide critiques on the
papers, but they would basically– So, the focus of that unit really is – for all students,
regardless of your discipline – to be able to understand the frontiers of your discipline,
the research frontiers whats the cutting edge of research within your field and subfield
of research and how your project will, in a sense, be part of that field and where it
sits within that field. And then, the remaining six units of the eight units are faculty or
department-based coursework units. So again, they differ between the faculties.
In the business of economics, we have four advanced disciplinary content units, and we
have a quantitative methodology unit and a qualitative methodology unit. So effectively,
students get support, get an understanding of the different qualitative approaches to
research and the different quantitative approaches to research. And then, the advanced disciplinary
content units, the focus there is, of course, to get to allow students a deeper understanding
of their own discipline. So the focus, really, of the first year is really to get you that
necessary background to be able, then, to go into the second year, which largely a thesis-based
year, so yeah, structured around delivering the thesis, and obviously, there’s chapters
within a thesis. So you can see the first year of the MRes is effectively addressing
individual chapters within a thesis. So research frontiers as a literature review, I suppose.
Understanding where your project sits, then methodology is a research methods chapter,
and then advances from the content units would draw on things such as theories and frameworks
that are unique to a particular discipline. So that’s the focus of year one, basically
to prepare you for a deeper knowledge of your discipline so you’re able to attempt the thesis
in year two. So that year two is really largely a thesis,
which is 90% of the assessment. So year two is made up of 10% what we call research frontiers
two. So I’ve talked about research frontiers one in the previous slide. Research frontiers
one is a unit, effectively, an individual unit. Research frontiers two is an assignment
you really have to do, again, where it’s very much specific to your project. So by the early
stages of year two, you should have developed a research proposal. And part of the assessment
for research frontiers two will be to place your research, particularly your research
project, within the broader discipline, the broader discipline within the field of research.
And that’s assessed at 10%, so the department and the faculty will allocate a grade to all
students out of 10 for that mark, for that assignment.
And then, you also have a certain number of juncture points throughout the second year.
The department and the faculty will require a literature review, which is a little bit
different than research frontiers. Obviously, research frontiers is placing you all, your
project, within the broader field. Literature review is actually undertaking literature
review of your particular field. And that will be due to department. That’s assessed
at satisfactory or not satisfactory, but it’s not given a grade. It’s not allocated a percentage
grade. There’s also tasks around research methods, where you might need to specify to
the department your research method you’re going to use, why you’re choosing that particular
research method for your project in comparison to other research methods that may be out
there. And towards the end of the year, you’re also submitting your research plan, which
is effectively the plan for a PhD. So even though you might not be doing a PhD, towards
the end, we require all students to be able to develop a plan for a three-year project.
So how the MRes are situated, you see the two years of the MRes, the two-year program
really is– you can see sort of the early stages of a PhD even though we call it a Master
of Research. So what we really have to do is in a sense take the second year of the
Master of Research project and see that as a mini-project for the PhD. It’s a lot of
students that do the second year of the MRes. When they do that thesis, they see that as a pilot
project for the PhD, and then they’ll scale it up into the PhD.
By no means are you required to take the same topic that you’re doing in the second year
of the MRes and do it in the PhD. Some students do change topics, but the design of the Master
of Research was about trying to take what you’re doing in the second year of the MRes
and then scale it up. So you might be doing a domestic Australian project in the second
year of the PhD, and then you might scale it up to be an international project– sorry,
you might be doing a domestic project for the second year of the MRes, and for the PhD,
scale it up to be an international project using similar literature, similar methodology,
but also you’ve got a much broader data set. And then you’ll be delivering at the end of
October, November– it depends on when you’re enrolling. In the second year when you commence,
you deliver a 20,000-word thesis. So that’s usually do you around the middle of October
and that will be– which is a roundabout now for our current students. And that will be
sent off, and there’ll be two external examiners. So we don’t have an oral defence. You send
off your thesis to two external examiners external to Macquarie who then write a report
and provide a grade out of 100. And those two percentage grades come back, and then
a committee sits and determines what the average would be between those two grades. And then
that’s your score, which represents 90% of the second year. As I mentioned before, the
research front here is two. Project represents 10%, and the thesis represents 90%. So you
take the 90%, and then you effectively take the average of the two grades for the thesis,
and then that’s your weighting. In the second year, next year, some of the
faculties may be introducing a confirmation of candidature. So that is basically where
you need to present your proposal for the second year of the MRes project in front of
a panel, and then that will be confirmed or not confirmed. So we do this to make sure
that students by the time they reach the middle of the year basically are on track and have
a well-thought-out project. We have a confirmation-of-candidature protocol process for the PhD and also for
the Master of Philosophy. It would these exist at all three levels of the high-level research
program: the Master of Research– Bachelor of Philosophy/Master of Research, Master of
Philosophy, and Doctor of Philosophy. Now, the entry requirements are– the minimum
entry requirements are a 2.5 GPA on a 4-point scale or, in our new 7-point scale, it’s 4.38
overall and at least a GPA-300 level or, a 7-point scale, it’s 5.25, which is equivalent
to a credit average at the highest level of study. So you would have a GPA that you would
have been provided at the end of your bachelor’s degree. So we would basically take that. Students
coming from overseas to the Higher Degree Research Office converts the GPA score from
overseas into an Australian equivalent to see whether you meet the entry requirements
there. That’s the basic minimum entry requirements. And some faculties, they have a higher entry
requirement. So, in FBE, my faculty, for example, we require a GPA of 5.25 out of 7 overall
at the highest level of study. So it’s not just 4.38; it’s 5.25. And in the actuarial
studies department. That’s even higher than that. Just because it’s a very technical program,
they set a higher threshold. So there will be differences between the departments and
between the faculties, but do see the admission requirements on the specific faculty or department
website and then on the research office website.
Now, so if you’re going directly into Year 2– so most of the cases, students will transition
from Year 1 to Year 2. They’ll do the coursework first year, and then they’ll transition directly
to the second year from there. Sometimes students will get a direct entry into the second year.
They’ll be exempted from the coursework year. So where you’ve done postgraduate studies
or an honours program at Macquarie University or another university, or you might have done
master’s coursework at another university or at Macquarie, we will take that, and we’ll
see if we can give you some exemptions for the first year of the MRes, exemptions for
some of those eight units. That’s subject to academic discretion. And we look at what
you’ve done in your master’s coursework elsewhere, and we say, “Does it mirror what we would
expect that you have done in the first year of the MRes?” So if you’ve done research methodology
units, then you’re probably exempted from research methodology units. If you’ve done
[MBA?] units or coursework master’s units, we would look at the individual units and
say, “That’s equivalent to some of the units in our first year of the MRes.” So that may
get you full credit of the first year of the MRes. It may get you partial credit for the
first year of the MRes. But can you be awarded up to 32 credit points for direct entry into
Year 2, and then you can basically go straight into Year 2 and do the thesis.
The recent exchange program at Macquarie, so we do have inbound and outbound exchange
programs that apply to the MRes. And the exchange program is currently for Germany, Sweden,
Norway, Denmark, and Israel, but it’s expanding. And this is where you may go overseas for
some time to do a unit and then come back. And that applies to the first or the second
year. So that’s up to the individual discretion of the faculty, so if you have enquiries about
that, then you might want to speak to your faculty MRes director. That mirrors what we
have at the PhD level, which is what we call a Cotutelle program. So the two-year MRes,
ideally, for most students leads into a three-year PhD. So once they finish that two-year MRes,
they enrol on a three-year PhD, assuming they have a 75% mark in the thesis in the second
year of the MRes. And the three-year PhD, the students are able to do, if they want,
a Cotutelle program, which is where they enrol in a PhD at Macquarie and a PhD at a foreign
institution and spend time at both institutions and have a scholarship with both institutions.
So that exchange program, in a sense, mirrors what we’re doing at the PhD level. And there’s
more information on the Macquarie website on the Cotutelle program should you wish to
read up more about that if you’re interested. That’s for the PhD program. Just get onto
Google and type in Macquarie Cotutelle, and it’ll get you that.
Okay. So in terms of fees and scholarships, for domestic students, the MRes is Commonwealth
supported. So it’s funded under the [inaudible] program for Year 1 and under the research
training program for Year 2. So there are some fees imposed, but in most cases, they’d
be covered by a Commonwealth fee offset. We do provide, for Year 1 domestic students,
$4,000 in stipend. There there’s a minimum eligibility requirement. So, basically, first
year is separated into session one and session two. So it’s $8,000 there available for students.
To qualify for $4,000 in session one, you need to have ended the program with a minimum
overall weighted average of 75%, which is– they assess that from your previous studies.
You need to be enroled full-time. So part-time students are ineligible for the stipend. And
you’d need to be on-site in session one of the BPhil/MRes.
The second year, the second session, which is the second session of the first year, again,
you’re eligible if you’re a domestic student for another $4,000, assuming that you can
at least maintain, from the first semester, grades that are equivalent to an overall average
of 75% in session one. So you’ll do four units in session one of first year, four units in
session two. So if you achieve an overall average of 75% in the first semester, then
you should be eligible for $4,000. Again, it only applies to full-time students who
are on-site. For year two, full-time, domestic students, again, are eligible for a high stipend.
Again, the fees are supported by a Commonwealth fee offset because the second year of the
MRes is funded under the Research Training Program. So the first year is funded under
what’s called the HECS, the Higher Education Contribution Scheme. And the second year is
funded under the Research Training Program, both are Commonwealth fee offsets. It’s just
the different fee offsets that’s the name of it.
The second year of the MRes, you’re eligible for a– high-performing candidates can get
up to $27,000 per annum in stipends, which is the same as what you would get for a PhD
or an MPhil paid on a fortnightly basis. And they apply to year one MRes students
progressing to year two and also direct year two entry. And they, again, apply to domestic
students. But, again, there’s conditions there. The minimum eligibility requirement is that
you must be a domestic candidate enroled full-time and on-site. You must be residing within the
wider Sydney metropolitan area. For students transitioning from year one to year two, you
must request, in the progression paperwork, you want to be considered for a scholarship
stipend. And, basically, a university committee sits in and ranks all candidates that apply
for a year-two scholarship stipend. And we look at grades, effectively, grades in your
first– totality of grades in the first year of the MRes and maybe you’ve also got publications
as well somewhere that we would take into account.
For the year two direct entry, similar conditions apply, the same amount, 27,000 per annum for
2018 rates, again, paid on a fortnightly basis. To qualify for a second-year MRes, you obviously
have to apply by the due date. I think for the– it’s October 31st. The end of this month
is the deadline for applying for the MRes for year two for MRes for next year, whether
that be a year-one entry or a year-two entry. So do get your applications in by the 31st
of October to be considered. And then we will then look at your application and see whether
or not you qualify for a scholarship. And if so, that’ll be a $27,000 stipend. They
are very competitive. So do bear that in mind. The scholarship budget is always very competitive.
And we have hundreds, literally hundreds, of applications every year. But we welcome
applications, obviously. For international students, international
students pay their tuition fees. So, certainly, in the first year, they’re required to pay.
That’s based on the credit point basis. Year two, MRes students, international students,
are eligible for scholarships in the second year of the MRes. They can get what we call
a bundle scholarship or bundle offer where you get a one plus three, the second year
of the MRes, plus three, your PhD. It’s called a bundle offer. So some international students
may be eligible for scholarships for the second year of the MRes if they’re entering it directly.
But, again, bear in mind it’s very competitive. So up to four years of scholarship may be
available for you, whether that’s funded by Macquarie through a one plus three bundle
offer. And to maintain that scholarship into the PhD– so if you’re an international student
and you want to get a scholarship for the second year at the end MRes
plus PhD, it’s important that the end of the second year of the MRes, you have high grades,
85% or above in your thesis, to be able to maintain that scholarship into the PhD. But
there are scholarship packages available from international scholarship agencies, whether
it be the China Scholarship Council or various national funding bodies around the world.
But the first year of the MRes for international students is fee-based. There’s no scholarships
to cover that, unless there are home government scholarships. But Macquarie don’t provide
scholarships for the first year of the MRes for international students.
So entry into these, so how does one transfer in from the MRes into the PhD? It’s largely
dependent upon your grade that you receive for your MRes. So to begin a two-year program,
the second year is the [inaudible] the thesis. If you’re getting 75% or above, overall grade,
so– remember, the thesis is 90% of the grade. And the research frontier is 10%. So the research
frontier, in a sense, it’s controlled by the university in many respects. It’s assessed
internally through the faculty through the department, whereas the 90% external thesis
is dependent upon the external examiners and what they give. Remember, there are two external
examiners for every MRes thesis. They provide a grade out of 100. And then we take those
two grades and with, let’s say, we got a grade of an 80 and another another examiner gave
a grade of a 90, then the midpoint between those two would be 85. So usually, if the
difference between the two grades is 10% or less, we just take the average. If there’s
a big discrepancy between the two examiner grades in the second year of the MRes– maybe
one gives a 60 and another gives a 90. That’s a difference of 30%. That’s quite significant,
so we would go to a third examiner just to resolve the grade, which may be an average
of the three, or it may be a weighting. So that’s important that you get at least 75%
overall. Most students would get 75%. 75% will get
you into the PhD as an entry point. Getting a scholarship is a lot higher, so just bear
that in mind. So getting 75% will get you entry into the PhD. Whether you then get a
scholarship, a stipend, will be dependent upon whether you get, well, probably 85, 90
percent. So again, it’s a lot higher. So for domestic students, even on the PhD, it’s covered
by a Commonwealth fee offset. So when we’re talking about 75, 85 percent for the grade,
we’re talking about the stipend, the living allowance, that a domestic student would receive.
So I suppose for domestic students, the 85 is critical if they want that 85– sorry,
if they want the stipend, the living allowance, because they won’t be incurring fees anyway.
Domestic students are covered by Commonwealth fee offsets, whereas for international students,
you would want that very high grade in the second year of the MRes in order for that
to cover your fees and your living allowance in the PhD. So that’s important. And these
are all competitive. They’re all put into one pool. It’s not allocated by department
or by faculty. Okay. And the entry into the PhD, obviously,
it’s a separate process. So just because you’ve completed the master of research and even
if you’ve got 75%, you need to apply for the PhD, and that’s always, obviously, subject
to supervision as well. So in most cases, 99.9% of the cases, students that finish the
MRes and [inaudible] and qualify for the PhD will go onto the PhD. But sometimes if they
want to change topic, there might not be a supervisor at the PhD that is on that topic.
So that might be a problem. But in most cases, students are able to transfer from the MRes
into the PhD if they have that 75% in the second year of the MRes.
So this is the deadline. Obviously, for domestic students, it’s the end of this month, which
is in a couple of weeks’ time. And for international students, that closed on the 31st of July.
But some of the faculties have a mid-year intake, and so for second semester, they might
be open for international students. Not all faculties have a mid-year intake. I’m pretty
sure arts don’t and FBE don’t, but the other three faculties do. Whether we offer it a
mid-year intake often depends on how many students we have. So ideally, all faculties
would like to have a mid-year intake where we have two student tranches each year, but
we have to run units, and it’s not economically viable for one faculty to offer it, to put
a professor to teach a unit when there’s only two or three students doing it. So running
a unit twice a year is ideal if we have a lot of students to warrant that. So yeah,
just bear that in mind. FBE don’t, and I’m pretty sure arts don’t, but the other three
faculties do. So on the screen there, you have the application form and how to apply.
And a lot of the information I’ve talked about today is online anyway about the master of
research and also the PhD as well. And Cotutelle is on there as well. So there’s a lot of information
on the website. So with that, I’ll I’ll stop sharing, and I’m happy to answer any questions
that you may have. Okay. Faisal Hasan. Faisal, I’m Faisal from Bangladesh.
Hello, Faisal. Faisal, I want to apply in environmental science master’s program. I
need an offer letter for applying a PM Fellowship which provides all kind of facility. Would
you please tell me how I could get my offer letter from your university? Maybe just we’ll
take your details down, Faisal, and we’ll be able to– we’ll see what stage your application
is in at the university. So it might still be going through pre-checking, or it might
be still being assessed in the department or the faculty. So we’ll obviously get all
offers out that have been accepted into programs as soon as possible, but it’s probably going
through a series of checks. So I’ll let the university follow it up with you. Okay.
Lynn. If Year 1 equivalent hours– is Year 1 equivalent– I’m not too sure what the question
is there. Is Year 1 equivalent honours? Year 1 of the MRes is a coursework year. We equate
it with honours, but it’s effectively a coursework year. The thesis is done in the second year
of the MRes. I’m not too sure, Lynn, what the question was there. But please, again,
send an email in, and we’ll try and address it more specifically.
Shabiq [inaudible]. To what is the extent the study area of our thesis self-determined?
Ah, good question. By all means, when you’re making your application, Shabiq, you can send
through a proposal. We encourage all students to have a developed proposal, an idea of what
you want to study. Bear in mind that each faculty, each department, will have research
expertise, professors in certain areas, so there may not be your specific area of study
being researched by a particular professor. My advice, Shabiq, is to look at the faculty
in which you want to enrol, look at the department specifically in which you want to enrol, and
look at the academics there, and look at their research. So all academics at Macquarie should
have their profile page – I think it’s through the Pure system – and you’re able to see what
their research areas are, what their publications are. So if you can try and have your study
area of your thesis around the expertise of the supervisor, that would help. But even
if it isn’t, we can massage it. So obviously, professors need to know their full research
field, and they might not necessarily have published in a particular area, but if there’s
a proposal by a research student that’s in a related area, then I think we’ll, in most
cases, bend over backwards to try and accommodate the student.
But if you can have a one- or two-page, a three-page bit of a proposal, a research proposal
on what you’d like when you make your application, it makes it easier to assess your application
but also to allocate you a supervisor during the first year.
Supervision allocation is done usually during the first year. So in the first year, you’re
doing your coursework, you’re learning about research, and then the department’s then looking
at you and trying to allocate you to a supervisor. So that doesn’t prevent you from emailing
a supervisor off the bat. So by all means, you can send an email to any academic and
enquire as to whether they have sufficient availability, and they can get back to you.
But at the end of the day, it’s the department, the faculty, that make the determination of
who supervises who. So by all means, get as much in as you can to get some feedback from
professors and from academic staff so they’re aware of youe application and hopefully they’ll
be able to sit. Again, if you want equivalent honours or their
consideration to transfer from MRes straight to the PhD. So if you have an honours– I
think maybe you’re trying to say there, “If you have an honours degree, can you go into
the PhD?” If you have a bachelor’s honours which is the fourth year of the bachelor’s
program– so we used to have the three year program. About three year undergraduate bachelor’s
plus the one year honours. Honours won’t get you into the PhD. That’ll get you up to one
year’s credit in the MRes. You’ll still have to do part of your MRes and then transfer
into the PhD. So I think that’s what you’re asking.
again, “If I completed undergraduates in two faculties, do I have to choose one
specific one for my MRes or can I draw from both fields?” Well, when you make your application, if you can just include all your transcripts that would be great. But obviously
next you’ll have to choose one. And we’ll assess you based on your knowledge. So if you have an undergraduate in environmental studies and another one in
arts and you want to do an MRes in environmental studies, then we will use your transcript
for the environmental studies to assess your applicability for the MRes program in environmental
studies. We won’t choose it from another field because obviously if you’re doing research,
the professors, the faculty, are looking that you have knowledge in that area. So yeah,
I hope that answers your question. Another question, a graduate from [inaudible],
“I graduate after semester one in 2019. Is there opportunity for me to commence my MRes
in semester two?” Yeah, as I mentioned before, it depends on the faculty. So some faculities
will have a mid-year intake, in which case yes, it’s possible. In other faculties it
won’t. If I can recall, yours was environmental– [inaudible] so yours might be science and
engineering in which case I think there is a mid-year intake. But the sooner you get
the application in the better so the faculty can commence to assess you, so don’t leave
it too late for that. Sophia, “If we do MRes course
work three units, still full time at a time, and then do two units the next year to complete
year one, would we still get the full case type-in for the first two semester of study?”
It depends on what you deem to be full time. I’m pretty sure full time is three units.
So yeah, you’d have to do three. But that would be a decision that would have to be
made by the high degree research office. For it to be classified as full time you’d need
to be doing, I think, three units. If I can recall, two units is part-time. But the high
degree research office will be able to provide more feedback there.
Brenton, accepted– okay. Chang Liu, “I’m wondering, if I have done a course work master’s
and have an average score of 65, can I join the the M field or the last year of the MRes?
Meanwhile if supervision from initial supervisors is approved, can I apply for the bundle offer?
What faculty comes in the bundle offer?” Okay, so if you have a course work master’s that
have an average of 65, can I join the M field? If you’ve done a course work master’s with
a thesis element, then you can join the M field. So today’s session was on the bachelor
of philosophy/master of research. That’s the one of three programs we have that’s our core
entry point. Then we have the master of philosophy and the doctor of philosophy. Or PhD. To get
into the master of philosophy, it’s a different degree than the master of research. So the
master of philosophy is similar to a doctor of philosophy. Doctor of philosophy or the
PhD is three years. The master of philosphy is two years. To get into the master of philosophy
or the doctor of philosophy you need to have completed the Master of Research. And you
can get into the Master of Philosophy with 65%.
So I mentioned before that to get into the PhD you needed 75% in the second year of the
MRes. To get into the MPhil, the Master of Philosophy, you only need to get 65%. So,
“Can you get into the MPhil?” You can get into the MPhil if you’ve done a master’s degree
with a research thesis. So unless you’ve done a research thesis– so anyone who hasn’t done
a research thesis before, must do the Master of Research. If you’ve done a research thesis
already in your master’s, we’ll assess that. And you can either go into the PhD if you’ve
got 75%, or if you’ve only got 65% in the Master of Research or an equivalent degree,
then you get into the MPhil. Even if you get into the MPhil chain, you can still upgrade
to the PhD. So it’s one of the beauties about the Macquarie degree.
So let’s say, for example, you’ll be doing the work all the way through from Macquarie
Program, so if you finish the second year of the MRes and you get 75%, you go straight
into the PhD. Not a problem. If you get 65%, that’s not the end of the road. You can go
into the Master of Philosophy. And after one year of the Master of Philosophy, then you
can upgrade into the three-year PhD. You’re subject to a faculty panel, but they’ll basically
assess you in the first year of the Master of Philosophy. And if they deem you progressing
enough, then you’ll transfer into the PhD. So to get into– to answer your question,
long story short, “Can you get in with a score of 65?” You can, but you must have done a
thesis before. If you haven’t got a thesis, then you won’t get into the MPhil or the PhD.
You’ll have to do the MRes. Second part of your question. “Meanwhile,
if supervision from an initial supervisor is approved, can I apply for the bundle offer?”
Yes, you can apply for a bundle offer if you get exempted from the first year of the MRes.
So if you’ve done a course with master’s, again, as I mentioned before, we’ll need to
look at your units that you’ve done in the coursework master’s and see whether we can
give you credit for the entire first year. So, as I mentioned, in our first year of the
MRes– our first year of the MRes is coursework, and part of that is research-methodology units.
So one of the key things we look for if you’ve done a coursework master’s is that you’ve
completed some research-methodology units in your coursework master’s. If you have,
then you’re likely to get then you can apply for a bundle. “If I have a double-research thesis for MGSM, can I enter directly into
the PhD?” Okay. So, so we’ll need to take a look at the scale of your thesis.
It might be that research project. I think it’s the 990 Project. If it’s equivalent to
our MRes thesis, then we can get you directly into the PhD. But, again, the issue is have
you done research methodology units. So that double-research thesis, it might be a similar
level to a bachelor master’s. So, again, whether you can get into a PhD, one, depends on whether
you’ve completed our Master of Research. And if you haven’t completed our Master of Research,
then we look at, “Have you done an equivalent master’s?” So we have a lot of students coming
from overseas, for example, directly into our PhD program, and they don’t need to do
our Master of Research. But what we will look for is have you done an equivalent to our
master’s. So have you done a two-year degree in the UK or in South Asia or somewhere. And
in part of your two-year master’s, have you done a thesis? Have you done a thesis, and
have you done some research methodology units? And if you have, then we say, “Okay. That’s
equivalent to our Master of Research, and, therefore, we equate it to be the same. As
long as you get your 75%, then you get directly to the PhD.” With the research thesis from
the MGSM, we need to take a look at what you’ve done there, but, again, whether or not you’ve
done any research methodology units. “How hard is it to pass the confirmation review?”
Oh. Look, it’s not too hard, Erica. It’s all about preparation. So remember the confirmation
review is the second year. So it’ll be, for the SB anyway and other faculties might
differ. We’ll be having ours around Eastertime about April. So if you’re coming in the first
year of the MRes, you’ll have– the first year is all about coursework, as I mentioned.
But you’ll also be thinking about your research project. You’ll be probably putting something
together. You’ll be talking with some academic staff. You won’t have a supervisor lined up
because it’s your coursework year. But you’ll be able to access materials in the library.
You’ll be able to go to the library, look at what a thesis looks like, its physical
composition. So you’ll be able to have plenty of preparation. And we’ll give you documents
that will help you prepare for the second year, the confirmation review, which is having
a research question, is it motivated? What contribution are you making to the area? I
think it shouldn’t be hard to pass it. People who don’t pass it, probably aren’t
committed. Maybe they’re working too much. That’s something you need to consider. So
you can’t be coming in and holding down a full-time job and then doing an MRes full-time.
That’s just going to be too much. Management of time is critical, especially for a lot
of you who are coming from a coursework-based environment where you go to lectures. The
lecturer gives you the lectures. You memorise the lecture. You go into the exam and you
write your answer, not necessarily [inaudible] answer from the lecture notes. But, in a sense,
you’re guided by the lecturer. With a Master of Research, with a PhD, with a Master of
Philosophy, you’re the one driving the project. So your supervisor is there to listen and
provide feedback. But you’re feeding your supervisor. Your supervisor is not feeding
you. That’s probably an easy way to explain it. Whereas in undergraduate coursework or
even a master’s coursework, the lecturer is feeding you. They’re giving you knowledge.
You’re taking it in. You might do an assignment. But then you memorise it, take it into the
exam, pass, move on. Whereas with the research framework– in a research framework, you’re
the one coming up with the idea, your original contribution to knowledge. It’s all project
management. You’re driving the project. So that’s a big thing for research students.
But they need to get their mind switched into that I’m the one driving the car now, not
somebody else. And so, yeah. So. Hi, Professor. Do I need to
prepare the research proposal if I’d like to apply for the MRes? Thanks, Yolanda. Okay,
Yolanda. Yeah. As I mentioned before, ideally, if you can have a research proposal, that
would help the department and the faculty assess you. You don’t have to have a comprehensive
proposal. You don’t have to have 20 pages. But you can have certain elements. You can
at least have an idea of your topic and maybe how you’d like to operationalise that. That
would help. And, certainly, you can get online. There’s plenty of examples of research proposals.
Don’t go overboard. You do not need to prepare a thesis before applying for an MRes. But
if you can certainly have an idea of what you would like to do, a small research proposal,
five pages, that’s good enough. That would help. As I mentioned, I encourage all of you,
regardless of which discipline you’re in, to get on to the faculty website, particularly
the department that you’re in and take a look at the professors, take a look at the academic
staff there and what they’re researching. And by all means, if you want, liaise with
them and start. You don’t have to. At the end of the day, the heads of department
will allocate supervisors. But, by all means, feel free to have a conversation with them
early on. Nagar. Hello. I’ve done my masters
in business administration from India. And I do have industry experience of nine years.
So how should I apply and what are the prerequisites? Okay, Nagar, so an MBA, you can apply for
MRes from an MBA. Again, we would look at your GPA. So as long as it meets the minimum
requirements, 5.25 for business and economics. So we would take your grades in India, and
we convert them into a Macquarie grade equivalent. We don’t take industry experience. That’s
not a factor for entry into the MRes, so it’s based on academic grades. So, by all means,
you do it online. So all Macquarie HDR programs, the MRes, the MPhil, PhD is all done online.
Go online. Upload your documents. Upload your IELTS, all your past transcripts. So IELTS
is important, English language. You need a minimum of 6.5 overall and 6 in each department,
6 in listening, speaking, writing, etc. So bear that in mind, the English language requirements. So
if you can, yeah, upload all your documents, transcripts, then you should be fine if you
meet the minimum entry requirements, yeah, GPA.
Mohammed. Hello. Do you consider professional qualifications, e.g. CPA’s eligibility? I
have overseas master’s in accounting, a 3.5 GPA. I passed it in 2012. I want to do research
in accounting. Yeah. So professional qualifications, no, because it’s different being a CPA. It’s
a different qualification. You’re looking at a professional qualification as opposed
to academic qualifications. So we would take [inaudible] we’d be looking at your [inaudible]
transcript, your bachelor’s GPA or your master’s GPA. In some cases, if you’ve done an overseas
master’s in accounting, you [inaudible] combine the CPA with the academic studies. So at Macquarie,
for example, we have a master’s of professional accounting where you can do a master’s degree
and also CPA as part of that. But, certainly, the grades that you get for CPA are not factored
into the GPA as an entry for the MRes. It’s separate. So industry experienced, your professional
grades, your professional qualifications are not a factor for entry into the MRes. They
will, however, be a factor for the PhD scholarships going forward. So I think, from next year,
we’re looking at things like professional publications if you participate in writing
a publication for a big four firm or [inaudible] we will take that as being equivalent to a
academic publication. So it might help in the scholarship but not necessarily entry
into the academic programs, which is based on academic prerequisites. Yeah.
Okay. What else we got? Patrick [inaudible]. On what basis is a thesis marked? Is there
a specific rubric at the start of the second year so students know what basis the thesis
is on? Yeah. Excellent question, Patrick. Yes. There is a rubric. I haven’t got it infront
of me here, but they’re looking at things such as a contribution to knowledge. So I
sit on the committee, and I’ve forgot it already. So it’s a contribution to knowledge,
whether your thesis is in a– whether you can get publications from your thesis, its
literary style, so how well it’s written. So yeah, there is a rubric. There is definitely
a rubric, and that can be provided to you. And the examiners get that rubric, so they
mark against that rubric. And obviously, the threshold for a PhD is different than MRes,
so that’s important to realise. For a PhD, obviously, the contribution to the discipline
is a lot more than it is for the master of research. So a master of research, you’re
just learning about research, so we don’t expect you to sort of win a Nobel prize for
your master of research thesis. It’s about making a little contribution to knowledge.
It might be a replication of a similar study overseas. But yeah, that will be provided
to you upon enrolment, not a problem, or once you’re into the program.
Debbie. Would successful completion of honours at Macquarie greater than 10 years ago be
considered as academic credit to the MRes first year? Yes, it would. Absolutely, we
give credit for the honours program. And greater than 10 years ago? Yeah, I don’t see a problem
with that. It’s up to the individual faculty, but if it’s a Macquarie degree, yeah, I don’t
see a problem with that. So that’ll grant you some credit for the full year, most likely
a full credit for the first year of the MRes. Yeah, so.
Preethi. Regarding RPL of coursework papers, how is the grade calculated? That’s recognition
for prior learning. Oh, well, I suspect that you’re asking how the GPA is calculated. There
is a GPA calculator if you get onto the Macquarie website. HDRO, higher degree research office,
have a method of translating the foreign GPA into an Australian GPA, but on the Macquarie
website, there is a GPA calculator. But sometimes how you calculate the GPA overseas is different
than here in Australia, but we use a seven-point grade. So do look that up. Yeah. Basically,
we’re looking at a distinction average. So yeah, we’ll translate it into a Macquarie
GPA. Shamila Khan. I’ve done my MBA from Pakistan
20 years ago and have been working in Sydney for the last many years. I have an idea for
research, but it’s in the social science area. With my research area having to be in the
business– would my research area have to be in the business area? Yeah. I mean, if
you’re coming from a different discipline– so if you wanted to do, say, an FBE master
of research and you’ve done your undergraduate in social science, we would still consider
you for the first year of the MRes. So I think that’s what you’re asking there, social science area.
So we’re looking for knowledge in a cognate discipline. So if you want to get credit for
any of the first-year MRes units, we would look to whatever you’ve done similar, the
units at the master’s level. So it’s got to be like for like. But you might want to do
an MRes in political science, and you’ve got a background in business. It’s up to the faculty
to make that decision whether they would take you on, but there’s no reason why they wouldn’t
as long as you did some foundation units. So I think I’ve maybe answered your question,
but if I haven’t, please send an email through. Shane. For the PhD program, what factors will
be considered if the average score does not meet the entry requirement? Will experience
as research assistant count? No, it won’t, Shane. So we basically need to– entering
the PhD program is based on your master’s thesis grade. It’s a big driver. So if you’re
coming through the MRes, that’s the key point there. Research assistant, it’s not an issue
that we take into account. So yeah, so. But again, entry into the PhD from the [EM res?]
is only 75%. Most students get a 75%. It’s not overly difficult. So, yeah.
Tim, you mentioned that if there is a significant difference between the two grades given at
the end of the program, a [thirteenth?] supervisor would be engaged– a third examiner would
be engaged. Yep. Supervisor. And that the final grade might not be the at the average
of the three. Just wondering why an average grade across all would be taken rather than
an average of the two “closest” grades. Oh, okay. Very good. So if there was a– if we
need a third examiner, we don’t discount one of those three examiners. So what we might
do is– I’m telling you the secrets here but let’s say we’ve got a thesis that’s gone out
for examination. One thesis has come in at 90. One examiner’s given a 90. Another examiner’s
given it a 50. You might think 40% is a big difference. We’ve actually had a couple of
those before. So at 40%, we have to go to a third examiner. It’s not too close we would
just average the two. So the third examiner comes back and he gives an 80. So we say,
“Okay. There’s an 80 and a 90 and a 50.” So we don’t have to throw out the 50. So what
we say is we give it a less weighting. So we don’t average the three. We’d say, “Okay.
Maybe it’s a 40/40/20.” We don’t throw out the third one because it’s still a legitimate
examination [inaudible]. So unless that third examiner that gave 50,
unless he was biased and somehow had a personal bias or was discriminatory in some way, we
don’t throw out that grade. So it does factor into the three grades but obviously, we’d
put a higher weighting on the 80 and the 90 because they’re closer to the norm here than
what the 50’s at but we don’t throw out that third grade. And this is why it’s very important
for you in the second year, you and your supervisor, to make sure you choose the right examiners.
Not to choose the examiner that’s going to give you the best mark, no. It’s the one that’s
going to give you the fairest mark but also ensure that the examiner that’s chosen knows
this [stuff?]. If you choose someone that doesn’t know the discipline and they give
a bad report, then, yeah, that’s on you. That’s on your head. So do think about who’s the
best person to examine your thesis and it might be someone who you’ve used in your reference
list. That’s fine. So, yeah. That’s important, so.
I think I’ve given it [inaudible]. I think I might’ve answered your question. Yeah. So
scholarship, yeah. Look, at the end of the day, [inaudible] you mentioned that last bit
about seems a bit unfair if that was going to cost someone a scholarship. Scholarship
is a [committee?] process anyway. So we’re not– in the old days, we set the limit of
85%. If you got 85% in the second year of the MREs, you automatically got a scholarship.
Now we don’t. We just rank everyone but the external examiners need to give a percentage
grade because that’s the only way we can really discriminate against students and rank them
according to scholarship [inaudible]. Otherwise, we’d have to get rid of one scholarship if
we don’t have the funding for that. But all examiners are given a rubric so they know
what to mark against. They know what an 80 to 100 is. They know what a 70 to 80 is. They
know what a 60 to 70 is etc. So you’re choosing your examiners because
they’re an expert in the area. Okay? So when you choose that, we’re assuming that you’ve
chosen those examiners because they know the area and they can give a fair grade. If they
don’t give the grade that you want then that’s the way– we can’t do anything about that.
You’ve chosen that examiner. So you’ve chosen that examiner. We’ve then given them a rubric
so that we narrow them in. We don’t tell them exactly what grade to give. That’s their academic
discretion but they certainly, if they’ve given a masters thesis, they know they’re
marking a masters thesis. They know they’re not marking your PhD thesis. So they’re going
to set a higher standard there, so quite a few more here. Mohammed Ahmed, “I’m
a domestic student here now. My question is if I have six years’ university teaching experience
back in my country, can I enroll at a PhD program directly?” Yes. You’d still need to
have a master’s thesis. Entry into a PhD program would require it. We would require you to
have completed a master’s degree, at least two years, with a thesis element. So if your
thesis in your master’s – and it could be back in any country – is six months to a one
year master’s and it’s completed and it’s got a grade of 75% or a distinctioner, then
that should be fine. But just have teaching experience won’t get you into the PhD. So
it’s important that you have that master’s thesis in a master’s degree.
Maria, Ontario, “Are the units for the first year of the MRes seminar-based– are the units
in the first year of the MRes seminar-based or do they rely more on independent working?”
A bit of a mix. The first year is a course work so you do attend structured classes week
by week. But the forms of assessment are different, so you might be analysing a research project.
So yes, it requires independent working. That’s it. There might be cases where you’re working
as part of a group, but your mindset will be different. So your first year of the MRes,
everything that you do, you’ve got to think in light of what you’ll be doing in the second
year. Okay, so when you’re learning about research methodology, whether it be quantative
research or qualitative research, you have to look and think, “Okay, well, how would
that fit within my project in the second year?” And you might come into the first year with
a clear idea of what you want to do for your thesis, and then throughout the first year
then you’ll change your mind. You’ll think, “Oh, okay, well, I might change my proposals
for the second year because I learned about a new research method that I didn’t think
was out there.” Or, “I learned a new theory. A new framework that might change how I might
position my research in the second year.” So, yeah, there is a degree of independent
working, but there’s also a degree of structure in that first year, because it is a course
work year. Mohammed [inaudible], “How current should
my bachelor or master studies be?” Look, if it’s 30 years old– [inaudible] 30 years ago
would probably require you to do a full master of research. But if it was within 10 years,
you should be fine. But again, that’s a judgement by the academics. So it’s all relevant. My
area is accounting, so if I did my degree 30 years ago, what I learned in accounting
30 years ago is probably not relevant today, because I didn’t have the internet back then
and I didn’t have software packages like I do today, so the knowledge of accounting today
is different than what it was 30 years ago. So the older your degree is, the more out
of date it is, because you’ve got to be really learning. When you’re preparing your master
of research or PhD or whatever, you’re using up to date knowledge. So you’ve got to be
abreast of that. So having something that’s 30 years ago, you might need to do it again.
But up to 10 years ago you should be fine, even though it [inaudible] change regularly.
Sarah [inaudible], “With the information on relevant professional experience for MRes
applicants, it asks for a CV and seems to indicate that it requires work experience.
Is this the case or can I use experience during my undergraduate studies that are relevant,
such as assisting with data analysis and manuscript preparation for academics? If so, would you
be contacting these academics?” Will you be– I’m not too sure of it there. But the relevant
professional experience– well, certainly in FBE, we don’t look at professional experience
as an entry point in the MRes. Maybe in the medical faculties they would, so maybe in
the medical sciences you’d have to enquire about them. I’m not too sure the extent to
which [inaudible] but most cases, the entry into the MRes is based on academic grades.
So a CV– so your professional experience, yeah, it might help in a PhD scholarship in
the coming years because we’re changing the criteria for PhD scholarship next year to
incorporate more, not professional experience but publications or outputs that you may have
whilst you’re a professional. You’re writing a medical document for a hospital or something
like that that’s not necessarily in the peer review journals. So your experiences, no.
As I said, to get into the MRes, it’s based on academic knowledge, not necessarily your
experience as a research assistant or– I think that’s what you’re talking about there
with experiences during my undergraduate studies. So assisting with data analysis and [inaudible]
preparation for academics, we wouldn’t use that as credit for a degree. So you still
have to complete a unit in data analysis or management preparation as opposed to working
for a professor. Yeah. Shannon Brown. Shannon. Hi. I’m currently
enroled as a domestic student. But I’m completing my degree in the UK. Will I still be able
to get HECS help with [inaudible] over here? Oh, that’s a good question. That’s a fee issue.
But if you’re a domestic student– I think if you’re a domestic student, to get HECS
help, you would need to enrol in [inaudible] Australian university degree. I don’t think
the Australian government will be paying for your fees in a UK university. I think that’s
what they mean. Yeah. That would be a question you have to direct to the fees office. Sorry.
But any Commonwealth fee offsets should be based on enrolments in Australian universities,
from my understanding. [inaudible]. Is it possible to do one coursework
subject per semester during the first year component if needed? Well, you could, [inaudible],
if you’re a part-time student. Yeah. By all means, you can do one that would take you
two subjects per year, that would take you four years to complete the first year. You
can do that if you want. Yeah. That should be fine. But, yeah, you probably– if you
can, probably do two, otherwise it’ll take you so long to get through the MRes. But,
yeah. [inaudible] [Dandari?]. Hi. I’m completing
bachelor of science nursing in 2013 and interested in midwifery. Then how can I do what I have
to do? Average percentage is 75%. At the present, I’m doing master’s in public health two trimesters
are remaining. I think what you’re trying to ask is, “Do you need to maintain a 75%
average?” Yes. You would, so it’s critical that you complete your bachelor’s of science
in nursing with good grades. Yes. You need to maintain that [inaudible] grade average
to get into the MRes. Yeah. So, yeah. So do try that. Do make sure that you meet those
GPA entry requirements. Don’t forget, they’re different between faculties, so some of you
might want to choose another faculty if you don’t meet the entry requirements for a certain
faculty, again, it’s based on your knowledge and your discipline.
Sophia [inaudible]. If we’d like to do a research project in a way which combines research methods
from two faculties, for example, combine biological sceince with anthropology, how would this
be done? Is it possible to be allocated two supervisors? Yes. It can be, Sophia. Again,
it’s up to the individual faculty. We got certainly in FB, we encourage cross-discipline
research. So it’s very possible to do a project on environmental accounting, for example.
You have one supervisor in the accounting department, another supervisor in environmental
sciences. So you can do that. Yes. You’d still have to be enroled in one faculty, though
so, obviously, you can’t graduate with a MRes from chief faculty. So you have to have a
home faculty. So you have to think about what your project would be and which discipline
your project best sits. Okay. It’s like a lot of interdisciplinary search. You can cross
over between two fields, but the more you cross over into one field, you suddenly fall
into that field and you’re not in your own field anymore. So just bear that in mind.
You have to think about which faculty your best based. So, with biological sciences,
you might be based in biological sciences but have a supervisor in anthropology but
still be enrolled in biological sciences. So it all comes down to where the heart of
the thesis lies. [Cheng Lui?]. “How much does a research thesis
need to wait in a coursework masters? Will 25 points be considered as enough?”
Yeah. Look, it should. We changed. So, obviously, for the MRes, our thesis is 50% because it’s
one year of a two-year degree. So if it’s 25 points, it should be okay. But what I do
when I assess it for FBE is I look not necessarily at the points, I look at– or the credit points
you’re talking about and the credit points do you need. I look more at the size of your
thesis. So our MRes here at Macquarie is at 20,000 words. So if you’ve done a thesis that’s
15 to 20 thousand words, it looks like a thesis that we would have at the MRes, then it should
be fine. But, if you are under points. So let’s say, for example, you’ve got a thesis
at the masters level and it’s worth 10% total of your credit points– 10% of your credit
points as opposed to the overall credit points, then we would look at have you got publications,
have you got research methodology units that we would package up to build it up to closer
to 50%. But you don’t have to meet that 50% directly. We don’t sort of draw a line. If
you’re 49%, “Sorry, we don’t count that.” I look more at– if you presented a thesis
to me, if that thesis, whether it’s a 25% waiting or a 15% waiting, doesn’t look similar
in comparison with our MRes thesis, it doesn’t have an introduction chapter, lit review,
research method, results, implications of results, conclusion, etc. Does it look like
our thesis as opposed to how many credit points it’s been allocated in your degree? But, of
course, it still has to be completed at a distinction level.
Maria [inaudible]. “I’ve already submitted an application for MRes is to start in semester
one. I have also agreed with one of the Macquarie researchers to be my supervisor [inaudible].
We’ve established a prospective thesis topic together. Is it guaranteed I will be able
to perform my thesis with the supervisor?” The question it should be– I don’t know what
department or faculty you’ve applied to, Maria. But I’ll be able to know if this is possible
when I get [it off the?] letter. What your supervisor should do, your supervisor should
be talking to the head of department. So at all times, supervision of students really
has to be approved by the head of the department. It’s a workload issue. So I assume that–
I don’t know what faculty you’re in, but for FBE, the supervisors have to get given the
okay by their head of department. So if I were you, I’d just have a conversation with
your supervisor and just ask them whether they need to get approval from their head
of department to supervise you. If they don’t, and the head of the department says to the
supervisor, “You can supervisor who you want,” then you should be fine.
Why heads of department get involved is because, obviously, there’s students that might coalesce
around one or two professors. We can’t have a situation where one or two professors have
20 students, another professor has 0 students. We won’t be able to spread the load. So that’s
what the head of department’s here to do. So I’m sure your supervisor if they’ve given
the okay, they’ve talked with the head of department– I encourage you to talk to your
supervisor and just make sure that they’ve confirmed that with their head of department
so you don’t have a problem with that. When you’re making your application, but the name
of your prospective supervisor on there and say that you’ve already had a chat.
Thomas [inaudible]. Excuse me. I want a glass of water. “Hi. Will the coursework here have
similar attendance requirements to undergraduate units, for example, 80% attendance, therefore,
if I needed to travel for a week–” stop there? One more? I’ll [inaudible] this one. Yeah.
Okay. Okay. Thomas, you’re the last one. And then everybody else, I’ll be able to answer
your questions via email. So some great questions tonight. Thank you very much, everyone. Thomas.
“Hi. Will the coursework here have a similar attendance requirement to undergraduates units,
for example, 80% attendance, therefore, if I need to travel for a week or two, I won’t
end up failing. Thanks for your time. You’ve answered a lot of my questions already.”
Okay. Thanks, Thomas. Yeah. Look, again, it’s a faculty issue. We don’t sit there taking
attendance every week, but, obviously, yeah, you want to be there as much as possible.
If you’re week travelling, that’s fine as long as you can catch up. A lot of the materials
are put online anyway. So, yeah, we’ll download them. But I wouldn’t be absent for half of
the classes. Otherwise, you’re not going to be able to complete assignments on time and
the like. So we’re not as strict as we are, say, with first-year undergraduate students,
where we might be marking everyone every week. From my understanding, in FBE, we don’t allocate
a mark for total attendance. It’s more to do with can you complete the material right
and whether you turn up or not. So it’s sort of like a PhD where you can do it on campus
or you can do it at home or you can do it on the top of Mount Everest as long as at
the end of three years, you’ve got a thesis. So that’s what we really– you’re all mature
adults, so we’re not going to be sort of marking you down if you’re not there for one week
or so. But, dude, what I would do is ask your unit convener at the beginning. So, Thomas,
if you have work requirements, for example, you just might want to outline that to your
unit convener and just say, “Look, it might be a week or two.” And your convener will
accommodate that. But just make sure you meet your deadlines for any of the assignments.
So yeah. Anyway, thanks, everyone, for your time tonight.
I know you’re all busy and thank you for inquiring for Macquarie. And I hope to see you [inaudible]
other colleagues next year. And all the very best. So thank you very much.

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