Languages Without Verb Tenses?!

Be sure to subscribe to Langfocus and click the notification button. Hello, everyone. Welcome to the Langfocus channel and my name is Paul. Today we’ll be talking about languages without verb tenses. Languages without verb tenses? How is that possible? Speakers of English and other indo-european languages, and I guess other languages too, might take it for granted that the basic features of their language must be present in other languages as well
But that’s not always the case One example of this is verb tense using a particular form of a verb to show the time period of an action past Present or future as they exist on a timeline in English we basically have these three tenses present tense is Represented by the simple verb stem like play for example with regular verbs the past tense is represented by the stem plus the inflection edie like played and The simple future tense is formed by placing the modal auxiliary verb will before the infinitive which is based on the verb stem – – for example we’ll play some linguists might argue that this future form is not actually a verb tense We’ll come back to that later But some languages don’t have verb tenses meaning they don’t have different verb Conjugations to show periods of time this is true of many Creole languages for example of Indonesian and Malaysian of Chinese of many Native American Languages and a lot more. Here’s an example from Indonesian. Here’s the verb meaning pay in the past present and future Mumbai odda the form of the verb is exactly the same in all three tenses And this might sound strange to you how can they clearly communicate without being able to say when an action takes place? Well first of all it’s normally not that hard to guess from context. Just to illustrate Let’s take the English word put which is the same in the present tense and past tense I? Put my keys on the table So as that sentence of present tense or past tense in the middle of a story taking place in the past it would probably be Past tense, but if someone were describing that action as part of their daily after work routine, then it would probably be present tense Context can clarify the time of an action aside from general context. There are other ways of indicating when an action takes place First there are words and expressions that indicate a specific time that the action takes place like today yesterday Next week last year etc second there are adverbs that indicate aspect for example Sudha Mumbai er which basically means already paid Sedan Mumbai er which means in the process of paying masse Mumbai er which means still paying these adverbs show aspect What’s the difference between tense and aspect as I mentioned before temps indicates the time period of an action past present or future? Aspect deals with the way actions unfold in relation to the time line rather than where they occur on the time line Sudha shows that an action is completed with a focus on the result of the action. We could call this perfect aspect sadang marks the imperfective aspect Showing that an action is in progress, but the action is not necessarily in the present tense Massey. Also marks the imperfective aspect Showing that an action is continuing but with an emphasis on the fact that it’s not yet finished These are just three of the many aspect markers in Indonesian another language without tenses is Mandarin Chinese I mentioned this in my video comparing Chinese and Japanese, but unfortunately I messed up my explanation a little bit Here’s the present tense sentence. I gave in that video watch Yourself this means I go to school the verb Chi is the same no matter what period of time it takes place in But there are words that can be placed before or after the verb which show aspect What should I should I sell this means? I went to school la Indicates the perfective aspect viewing an action in its entirety including its completion at a point in time This is often thought of as a past tense marker, but in certain contexts it can be used with future events for example Warming can cheela funky need a deal. Wha this means I’ll call you after I’ve had a meal tomorrow time can also be indicated with time related vocabulary So again, what cheerless you so this means yesterday? I went to school. You can see that We’ve added the word for yesterday in this sentence We actually still need the perfective aspect marker because the verb here is an action verb with a definite start and finish But in some sentences the perfective aspect marker is not needed for example, so what you see you see this means yesterday I rested here. There’s no aspect marker and the only indication of time is the word meaning yesterday Here’s a sentence with a different aspect marker. What’s that? She she saw the Lu Xiang this means? I’m on the way to school. This word sad shows imperfective aspect Indicating an action that is in progress and again not necessarily in the present and this part at the end here means on the road These are two common aspect markers in Mandarin, but there are others The main thing to notice with the Indonesian and Mandarin examples is that the verb itself is not conjugated You simply place a different word an aspect marker next to the verb it’s actually very common for languages to not have tense But I’ve never heard of a language that doesn’t have aspect in many languages tense and aspect combined together to form various verb conjugations and many people really don’t distinguish between the two concepts for example in English we have the present tense as in I work and We have another form I’m working which is in the present tense, but with progressive aspect And we have I have worked which is in the present tense but with perfect aspect Showing a connection between a past event and the present people tend to think of all of these different verb constructions as tenses But strictly speaking there is more than just tense there there are certain languages that do have tenses But not all of them in particular. It’s quite common for languages to show no distinction between present tense and future tense This is the case with Japanese for example Which has two tenses past and non past so cool today must could mean I eat Japanese food in the general sense or I’ll eat Japanese food in a specific case in the future It’s normally not hard to tell the difference based on context And there’s another form day you do or Tomas which represents a continuing action or continuing state Incorporating uses of both progressive as well as perfect aspect People often think this is strictly a present tense form but it can also be used for future actions for example Nice your name. I got a lot well kinda They say go to state or not they change it on a night This sentence means I can’t believe that around this time next week. I’ll already be living in Canada here You can see that the verb say katsu stay to is in the toyota form Representing progressive aspect, but the action takes place in the future many linguists would even argue that English has no future tense That’s because there are no inflections on the main verb to show future tense But it’s shown instead using a modal auxiliary specifically will modal auxiliaries in general indicate likelihood ability permission and obligation will does express future action But syntactically it works like a modal auxiliary And there’s also the construction going to which can be placed in front of the main verb to indicate the future Semantically speaking English can express the meaning of the future tense using these constructions, but grammatically they’re not really future tense But again most people tend to think of that as the future tense in English Indeed many of the verb forms that we tend to think of as tenses include elements other than tense Take French for instance which is usually thought to have 14 tenses 7 simple tenses and 7 compound tenses But the 7 compound tenses contain an element of aspect Shown through the use of auxiliary verbs and the conditional and subjunctive forms show distinctions in mood the conditional form Suggests that one action is dependent upon another and the subjunctive form indicates desire or probability These are moods and even though they have separate verb forms and are often referred to as separate tenses They really express both tense and mood so verb tenses may work differently in different languages and some languages may lack grammatical verb tense entirely But that doesn’t mean that they can’t express those different time periods in other ways whether from Context from the use of time expressions like tomorrow from the use of aspect or from the use of modal auxiliaries When some people hear that there are languages with no verb tense They imagine that the speakers of these languages have no Understanding of time that they can’t plan for the future or that they can’t remember the past or something like that But that’s not the case at all We’re all humans after all and we all find ways to communicate the same basic things the question of the day does your language have special verb forms to express past present and future Does your language contain a large number of tenses that? incorporate aspect and mood if you’re not quite sure Maybe look it up and find out a little bit about it and tell us in the comments down below be sure to follow focus on Facebook Twitter and Instagram and once again Thank you to all of my amazing patreon supporters Especially these wonderful people right here on the screen for their monthly pledges. Thank you for watching and have a nice day

100 Replies to “Languages Without Verb Tenses?!

  1. I think Russian has 2 tenses too. I.e there are really tenses for the past and present but there are some problems with future. Formally though the language does have all 3 tenses. But it's pretty weird that only one single verb has it – "to be" all the other need to use similar in some way to English construction with be in appropriate tense i.e "буду делать" – will be doing/will do (imperfect future) with literal translation " be [future tense] do" or "be [future tense] to do". Perfect tense is formed by just doing verb in present perfect i.e "рисует" – paints/is painting and "нарисует", where "на" is prefix, is will have painted.

  2. Excelent channel.
    Brazilian portuguese has a very complex and quite complete verb tenses and conjugations.

  3. Then German wouldn’t have a future tense either as warden is used, maybe that’s where English got it from.

  4. In Portuguese a verb can vary in 70 different forms (54 tenses, and 16 non-tense) Indicative form: presente(x6), imperfect past(x6), perfect past(x6), more-than-perfect past(x6), future of presente(x6), future of past(x6). Subjunctive form: presente(x6), imperfect past(x6), future(x6).
    Non-tenses;Imperative form: positive imperative form(x5), negative imperative form(x5). Infinitive form conjugation: personal infinitive(x6). Some of them might be the same, but they have different meanings in context.

  5. When I was trying to teach myself French, I got a French grammar book (written by a Frenchman) that listed a whopping 22 tenses, including some that he said were obsolete in modern usage.

  6. Italian is full of verbe tenses! We have 4 ways to indicate presente tenses, 3 tenses to indicate the future and 9 ways to indicate the past.
    1 like = 1 hope for who is studing Italian to understand our grammar

  7. I think we've been using the most difficult languages on earth for all these long centuries in the middle east ,Europe, Africa, America , Australia and Russia. Long live China.

  8. Russian language occurs to avoid solid grammatical ways to express modality or aspects. Mostly it's formed analytically, with separate words. All (or almost all) of the Russian verbs have a form of Future tense, but it's aspect is usually Perfect. In Imperfect it's created with an auxiliary verb (compare: я иду = I walk / I'm walking; я буду идти = I will walk; я схожу = I will have walked)

  9. Turkish (These are modular adjectives that we use for tenses)
    Çalışırım (I work)
    Çalışıyorum (I'm working)
    Çalıştım (I've worked or I worked)
    Çalışıyordum (I was working) (seen)
    Çalışıyormuşum (I was working) (heard)
    Çalışacağım (I will/going to work)

  10. If you are English speaker i suggest to learn Indonesian language i'm sure it's easier than French, Welsh, Scottish, or Irish

    Indonesian have very much similarities with English

  11. Ciao Paul, I'm italian and my language is full of tenses, in my opinion it's easy, but it can do very difficult for a stranger to learn it.
    I often watch your videos, you are very good to explain them. Greetings from Bologna.

  12. In Jamaican patois we don't have tense either
    Me play- I play
    Me ah/deh play- I'm playing
    Me did/wen/ben play- I played
    Me did/wen/ben ah play- I was playing
    Me ah/deh go play- I'm going to play
    Ah play me did/wen/ben ah play- I was playing (used to answer a question like "how did you hurt yourself?", "ah play me wen ah play mek me hurt meself")

  13. I speak Farsi, both questions should be replied by a yes. But we have fewer tenses. 12. And we use something like English to show we are talking about future. But like some languages, we use a present form when informally talking to show the future tense. Farsi is somehow a different language from others, If u speak the way u write, u will be laughed at. We have 2 real strong formats, one is Informal form. Which is how ppl communicate normally, and one is Formal form, which is how media, books and news are.
    I've heard English has abbreviated two tenses in its history. Like He had had had. lol. When I learn Norwegian, they haven't dropped those tenses, so I feel brainfucked sometimes :))

  14. Thanks for this extremely informative video, keep up the amazing work!
    The only thing that bothers me is that I don't think "我昨天休息 wo zuotian xiuxi " is a good example in this case.
    If you say that to any Mandarin speaker they will almost definitely take it as specifically 'I was on leave yesterday' rather thab 'I rested yesterday'. So it's more of a description of a state of being than of an action (…… I guess, sorry I don't know the linguistic vernacular). To mean 'I rested yesterday' I think you'll still need the word "了 le"
    Also "我明天吃了饭给你打电话 wo mingtian chi le fan gei ni da dianhua" sounds colloquial and dialectical

  15. as many have mentioned, modern Chinese has tense, those are often called 着了过,equivalent to -ing,-ed,have done. There is no irregular change and when you have a verb, you simply add an Chinese character of 着 了 or 过 .

  16. by the way, there is no case in Chinese and the transformation of pronouns are relatively regular.
    我=I or me, 你=you, 他/她/它=he or him/she or her/it(there was only 他 hundred years ago and the other two forms are made to learn from European language),
    我们=we or us, 你们=you, 他们=they or them,
    我的=my or mine, 你的=your or yours, 他的/她的/它的=his/her or hers/its
    我们的=our or ours 你们的=your or yours, 他们的=their or theirs

  17. I'm Italian and my language has 21 tenses (divided in two classes: simple tenses and compound tenses), 7 moods (4 finite and 3 indefinite) and the ending of a verb depends on the subject (like I, you, he etc.) of the sentence. For example=
    {[Present Tense (Indicative Mood)] verb "to eat"}:
    io mangio (I eat)
    tu mangi (you eat) and so on, but the Simple Future Tense goes like:
    io mangerò (I'll eat)
    tu mangerai (you'll eat) etc.
    But it actually isn't that difficult because most of the time we don't use all of the tenses. Some of those tenses were really used in poems but we still use them sometimes.

  18. In French, we have a future tense but most of the time we don't use it anymore in informal speech. We can use the present tense with the word "tomorrow". For example: "Tu fais quoi demain?" (lit. "You do what tomorrow?) or "Tu viens demain?" (lit. "You come tomorrow?"). We also use "aller + verb" ("to go + verb"). For example: "Je vais partir en Chine (lit. "I go to leave to China") or "Je vais me marier la semaine prochaine" (lit. "I go to get married next week").

  19. I'm Russian and we have only three simple tenses(future, past present). And I'm not always can determine what kind of tense(simple, continuous, perfect) I should use in English and French or some another language that has the same shit.

  20. I speak te reo Māori and Tamil.
    In te reo Māori, verbs have a number of tense-aspect combinations like English, though there are some that only indicate aspect.
    In Tamil, it's like French, everything is aspect shown in various time periods

  21. English: my apple
    Thai: แอปเปิ้ลของกู or เเอปเปิ้ลกู
    Word by word: apple belong i or apple i

    English: i eat the apple
    Thai: กูกินเเอปเปิ้ล
    Word by word: i eat apple

    English: i ate the apple
    Thai: กูกินแอปเปิ้ลเเล้ว
    Word by word: i eat apple already

    English: i will eat the apple
    Thai: กูจะกินเเอปเปิ้ล
    Word by word: i will eat apple

    English: i am eating the apple
    Thai: กูกำลังกินเเอปเปิ้ล
    Word by word: i doing eat apple

  22. my language arabic has past present and what i refer to as the commanding aspect wich refers to doing something in the future i guess.

  23. I am Chinese, when we learn English, it seems so tiresome to be precise about time and tense when very often it is not necessary to communicate or emphasize the time aspect. Whenever it's necessary to communicate and/or emphasize time there are infinite ways to do so, in any language. It's especially odd to insist that time and aspect and even mood must be compressed into a word. What's wrong with adding words or phrases to a clean unmodified verb?

  24. I love this video. Someone should make you a statue or something.
    I was in love with complexity of languages, grammar, verbs etc, but lately I realized that i like the idea that languages should be like design: you obtain a perfect design when there's nothing to take off anymore. So tenses can be taken off. And that is great. Less effort to express the same thing. I'm italian but i do recognize that chinese mandarine really minimizes everything. Just thing about the fact that it's a tonale language too, so the same syllable gains different meanings according to the tone you pronounce it with. 4 tones or pinch. That's amazing.
    In italian, thanks to the context, you can express almost everything with the present tense, even if sometimes not: when we tell things in the past, to emphasize things we use the historical present (and many other languages do). Sometimes we use present tense instead of "am doing" we just say "do", like "cosa fai? – leggo" (literally means "what do you do? – I read" meaning "what are you doing? – reading"). And for the future It Is very common to use the present tense plus an adverb of time, an expression of time etc.: "L'anno prossimo vado in Grecia" – "next year i go to Greece" meaning next year i'm going to Greece.
    Learning english at School (especially in Italy where trachers are not good) was very difficult because learning how to use tenses was impossible. Italian doesn't have the "duration form" and so many basic things cannot be expressed easily. By the way, to express the duration form, we use the present 😉. There Is a famouse english Professor here in Italy, professor John Peter Sloan, he is Always hilarious, who says that we italians usually speak like tarzan because we always use the present tense trying speaking english 😂
    Of course we diohave tenses and use them a lot when we want to be precise and less colloquial. Indicative mood 5 + 5 compound, conjunctive mood 2 + 2 compound, conditional mood 1 + 1 compound. Then we have the non-conjugated Moods: infinitive 2 not conjugated tenses, gerund 2 not conjugated tenses, participle 2 not conjugated yet inflected tenses. Plus the periphrasis to explaine the famouse "aspects" youn mentioned in the video. And I know portuguese has more tenses and conjugates the infinitive mood. So yeah… Better chinese.

  25. Portuguese is full of tenses when we consider the composed ones (as we normally do in grammar), but if you don't take them in account you'll have less hardtimes hahah
    Oh and there're even some non-composed forms which we don't use anymore but in litterature or strictely formal situations.

  26. My mother tongue is Spanish, and now you can realize that there are so many time tenses like in French. I dare to say more than French, and we have to decline all of them for 3 singular and 3 plural subjects. Plus, there are many irregular verbs that we use every day. I like very much your videos, thank you because I'm always learning more and more.

  27. I am from Malaysia and I learn Arabic Language. Arabic has 3 tenses :

    الفعل الماضي past tense
    الفعل المضارع present tense
    فعل الأمر Command tenses.

    For future tense, they use aspect, like adding س or سوف .

    And as you said Mr. Paul .. Malay Language has no tenses.

  28. In Greek we have 7 tenses, but most of them show aspect. Apart from present past and future, there are also present, past and future perfect and a past continuous tense. Also I never remember learning this at school but there's a hypothetical past perfect tense which conjugates the verb as 'I would have (done sth)'

  29. Quebec sign language interpreter here (LSQ, Langue des signes québécoise). LSQ is a sign language pretty similar to Langue des signes française (LSF, French sign language) and American sign language (ASL). In LSQ we basically express things without verb tense too, and we use what I think we could call an aspect to express time in different ways. For example, we can say (or sign, whatever): "MANGER FINI" which means "J'ai mangé" in french or "I just ate". The sign "FINI" in LSQ, in my opinion, could be an aspect. The sign "MANGER" is signed exactly the same way, whatever tense you're refering to.

  30. In russian there are sometimes different words for tenses: "был" ("was") – "есть" ("is", but also "to eat" – that's russian), "шёл" ("walked") – "иду" ("walking now") etc.

  31. 我吃飯。I eat rice. (There is an emphasis on rice here.)
    我在吃飯。I am eating. / I am having my meal.
    我在吃飯了。I am eating already. / I am having my meal already.
    我吃飯了。I have eaten already. / I have had my meal already.
    我吃了飯。I have eaten already. / I have had my meal already. (A slightly awkward expression.)
    我吃過飯。I have eaten rice before. (There is an emphasis on rice here.)
    我吃過飯了。I have eaten already. / I have had my meal already. (A slight nuance here is that you believe or feel the questioner expects you to eat, and so you are emphasising the completion of your eating. 過了 means already over.)
    我吃了飯了。I have eaten already. / I have had my meal already.

    The most natural, commonly used expressions are
    我在吃飯。I am eating (now).
    我吃了。I have eaten.
    我吃過了。I have eaten. (with an emphasis on the completion of your eating)
    我吃飽了。I have eaten (and I am now full).
    我已經在吃飯了。I am eating already.

  32. The fact that no one talks like that anymore hdkdhskdh, indonesian literally has no grammar rule except ‘s p o k’ which means ‘subject-predicate-object-adverb’ and in daily conversations people don’t really use it lol

    We would say something like:
    “Kerjaan lu gimana kemaren?”
    (How was your work yesterday?)

    “Gampang gampang aja sih”
    (My work was easy)

    “Ya besok gua kerjain”
    (I’ll be working on that tomorrow)

    And indonesians don’t care that much about spelling as long as the other person they’re talking to understand what they’re saying lmaoo

    So in conclusion we don’t talk the same anymore cuz people here are THAT lazy to talk and spell their OWN language correctly even in their exams.

    And tbh it’s quite hard to teach foreigners this language cuz literally there is no exact rule of this language so it’s pretty confusing skskskj

    We also don’t have pronunciation lesson cuz it’s sooooo easy to pronounce Indonesian words cuz basically every word sound the same, you don’t need any phonetic in this language. (Except for ‘E’ cuz sometimes we pronounce it as ‘eu’ or ‘e (the same as you pronounce ‘a’ in english, but no matter which ‘E’ you’re saying, everyone here would still understand you)

  33. 5:14: German has no real aspect system. Of course, it has Präteritum, Perfekt and Plusquamperfekt as different past tenses, but in speech they are used almost interchangeably, with Perfekt being the predominant past tense. And written German only uses them for different situations (e.g. Präteritum and Plusquamperfekt for stories).

  34. Vietnamese is the languages without verb tense. It is also SVO type. For example:
    Vn : Hôm qua, tôi đến trường
    Eng: Yesterday, I went to school.

    Vn: Ngày mai, tôi đến trường
    Eng: Tomorrow, I will go to school.

    Vn: Anh yêu em
    Eng: I love you

    Vn: Anh đã yêu em
    Eng: I loved you

  35. Poul, on a besoins une video sur les langues sans des cas comme le francais et le plupart des langues latines

  36. The three languages that I speak prior to learning English in elementary school all has no verb tenses, no conjugation. I thought English was the weird one with all the -ed and the -s .

    Then I learned French.

  37. In Warüigo, there are tense suffixes which conjugate a verb (e.g.: ikü / go) into the past (ikVh / went) or future (ikVkx), e.g. Iki. (I go.) Ikih. (I went.) and Ikikx. (I will go.) but there are also aspect suffixes like -dV indicating a progressive, e.g. Ikodo. (We are going.), and other suffixes like the dubitative -V to indicate that you think something has/is/will happen.

    This makes it very easy to adjust the time if the circumstances change, e.g.: Mepre dzeidyoki axeridi… ya ima axerih. (At the moment I am buying the groceries… and now I bought [them].)

  38. My mother language is Swedish. Technically it is like English but it has no ongoing aspect. There are two real tenses: past and non-past, and there are two aspects: imperfect and perfect, combined with past and non-past, making present, preterite, perfect and plusquamperfect.

  39. The language I speak has two future forms, one present and two past forms. However, it's possible to use the present form to express future intentions and past actions while narrating as well, depending on a context, of course. In fact, the present form is more widespread comparing to both future forms.

  40. Thai seems to have a lot of 'aspect' & 'mood'.
    My Thai girlfriend in particular has a great deal of the latter.
    I go to Bangkok every day.
    Tomorrow I will go (" jaa bi") to Bangkok.
    I will be going to Bangkok already ie I am going to Bangkok now. – (this is from a translation app)
    I "gamlang" making food ie
    I am cooking (food).
    The second word pronounced "gamlang" is used a lot to express present continuous action.
    Note that Thai has no punctuation.
    It's a very interesting language and a bit challenging.
    I'm deteriorating though.
    Eight years ago I could order drinks for 6 or 7 people in a bar.
    Now I can order only for 1 – myself.

  41. My language is VERY complicated when it comes of Noun Cases and Verb Tenses
    I can figure out them but for others is quite hard and challanging
    I'm romanian btw

  42. Very interesting. I know of a language that one could say is the opposite. The language of Tlön has no nouns and pretty much everything is made of impersonal verbs modified by monosyllabic suffixes (or prefixes) with an adverbial value. For example there is no word corresponding to the word “moon”, but there is a verb which in English would be “to moon” or “to moonate”. “The moon arose above the river” is hlor u fang axaxaxas mlo, or literally: “upward behind the onstreaming it mooned”

  43. Portuguese has 4 different pasts, 4 different futures, but the present is only the simple presente just like "eu como" (I eat) and present progressive "Estou comendo" (I'm eating)
    but never forget that along the other romanic languages, each person has your conjugation "Eu como, tu comes, ele come, nós comemos, vós comeis, eles comem" and etc etc

  44. Turkish:

    Translations are not perfect. This list is not incomplete. Turkish tenses are too complex, also there are mood suffixes which make longer verbs with different meanings.

    If it is not native tongue, it would be hard to learn Turkish for me.


    Her gün elma yerim. (I eat apple every day.)

    -Ne istersiniz? -Varsa bir elma yerim. (-What do you want? – I'll have an apple if you have one..)
    Eve gidince dolaptaki yemekleri yerim. (When I get home, I will eat the food in the fridge.)


    Şimdi elma yiyorum. (I am eating apple now.)


    Dün elma yedim. (I ate apple yesterday.)


    Çocukluğumda çok elma yemişim. ([It is said to me that] I ate many apple in my childhood.)


    Yarın elma yiyeceğim. (I will eat apple tomorrow.)


    Gençliğimde çok elma yerdim. (I used to eat many apple in my youth.)

    Çok elma olduğunu bilseydim daha fazla elma yerdim. (If I knew there were too many apples, I'd eat more apples.)


    Çocukluğumda çok elma yermişim. ([It is said to me that] I used to eat many apple in my childhood.)

    Çok elma olduğunu bilseydim daha fazla elma yermişim. (If I knew there were too many apples, I'd eat more apples. [just realized it]


    Yarın elma yiyecektim. (I was going to eat apple tomorrow [but plan has changed])

    Dün elma yiyecektim. (I was going to eat apple yesterday, [but I didn't])


    Yarın bahçede elma yiyecekmişim. ([It is said to me that] I will eat apple in the garden tomorrow.)


    Sen geldiğinde elma yiyordum. (When you came, I was eating apple.)


    Sen geldiğinde elma yiyormuşum. ([It is said to me that] when you came, I was eating apple.)


    Dün elma yemiştim. (I ate apple yesterday [just realized/remembered it]) {It too hard to explain this tense :D}

    Haber vermeselerdi, zehirli elmaları yemiştim. (I'd have eaten poison apples if they hadn't told me.)


    Yarın bahçede elma yiyecekmiştim. ([It is said to me that] I was going ot eat apple in the garden tomorrow [but not anymore]) {I don't sure this sentence is valid grammatically, but I sometime make this kind of sentences.}

  45. We in German have a got past tense called "Plusquamperfekt". Example : "Ich bin gegangen". In English: " I went", but the "I went" is in this case not exactly the same like in the 2 past tenses, Präteritum and Perfekt. It is a deeper past tense, which is deeper than the Perfekt,which is deeper than the Präteritum

  46. Tagalog and other Philippine languages have verb tenses. So definitely it's not a malay language and no relation to malay during its's creation. Filipinos are not malay however we share the same ancestor and race.

  47. In Albanian language there are 6 moods which have their tenses, so we don't count them like in French!! For example :
    Indicative mood has 8 tenses
    Subjunctive mood has 4 tenses
    Conditional mood has 2 tenses
    Imperative mood has 1 tenses
    *Causative mood has 2 tenses
    *Admirative mood has 4 tenses
    ( I guess that 2 last moods don't exist in other languages )
    In total : 21 tenses 🤯🤯🤯🤯🤯

  48. I speak English, Thai, French and Indonesian. Paul's absolutely right. Indonesian has no tense but has aspects and words to indicate the time.

    Thai also does not have tense. The grammar is almost non-existent. The real difficulty comes with the vocabulary. Many words can have same the same meaning, but are used in different contexts. Your age relative to the speaker, formal thai (written/poetic thai), talking about the royal family (royal thai) and the relationship between you and the person you're speaking to can all affect the word you need to use in a sentence even if it may have the same meaning. Don't forget that Thai is also a tonal language, and has over 70 characters (including vowels, compound vowels, and consonants). Grammar/Tense is the least of the Thai language's concerns, lol.

  49. What if Chinese is romanised? Will it still count as language without verb tenses?

    For example (Cantonese):

    我食飯。Ngo Sik Faan. I eat meal.
    我食緊飯。Ngo Sikgan Faan. I'm eating meal.
    我食咗飯。Ngo Sikzo Faan. I ate meal.
    我食完飯。Ngo Sikjyun Faan. I have eaten meal.

    Could sikgan, sikzo and sikjyun be viewed as inflections rather than aspects?

  50. This was really helpful. I honestly didn’t understand the difference between tense and aspect until now, thank you!

  51. I'm not a native speaker but Spanish (in the same way as French) has a tense, aspect and mood or combination of them to have a way to say a verb for any way it would ever need to be said.

  52. this is misleading, there might be languages without verb tenses seen as european verb declension, but even indonesian,chinese and other languages taken as example have a system to modifiy a stem, still invariable, just by gluing something to it to indicate the tense. what is the difference between verbal stem-ed in english, and verbal stem-le in chinese ? no differences, this is the same thing, the same system. the english -ed should be seen from chinese eyes as the same thing, and european eyes definitiely should see the chinese "le" as a conjugated verbal form. you add a post or pre position to indicate the tense, the only things that will change is the more or less extreme regular or irregular, varying or constant tables of this verbal declension system, ranging from mega simple like in english, chinese, indonesian to mega heavy like in georgian, polish, even french. the question is does a language exist without any kind of tense indication ? does such a language carry enough degree of communication potential to exist or not ? actually what is impressive in the global system of tense markors in languages all over the world is that 99% of world languages have chosen to add a pre or post position to a verbal stem whose only potentially the last phonemes will be changed more or less irregularily before attaching the postposition/tense declension …. the 1% remaining completely strange languages which does not follow this system contain two major language of the world : arabic, which has decided to change completely from inside the word to expres the tense and everything else, leading to a word looking very different from one form to anothher of the same verb, and french with an uncountable number of stem irregularities occuring everywhere in the original stem that cannot be displayed by regular conjugated verb tables

  53. At school we learned English had 12 tenses. Could anybody tell Ukrainian teachers English has only 2?:)

  54. Russian has 3 verb tenses which are past, present and future. I've always thought that was the case with other languages (cause that just makes sense imo heh) but then I started learning english… (but to be fair I still think russian is harder to learn with all it's morphemes and stuff)

  55. there are languages that have verb forms that are "real" (e.g., present or past) that refer to actions that are in progress now or finished in the past. Then there is another type of verb form that includes all "non-real" actions and include future, subjunctive, conditional…..

  56. Does that mean English has future aspect, but no future tense?? If you use an infinitive verb with a modal verb to indicate the future, does that count as aspect??

  57. I've been studying french for over 10 years, verbs conjugation is a total nightmare !!! (I still get confused with verbs tenses in English too but it's not as bad as french ! )

  58. Mocking past tense in Turkish;
    example: gitmişmiş
    meaning: he said he has gone but i don't believe

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