A Successful Literature Review Part 1


hello everyone my name is Dr. April Bice
and i’m going to be talking to you about how to complete a successful literature
review from beginning to writing for publication. This is part one conducting the review. Why is a literature review important? A literature review is important because
it’s a way to assess what the state of the science is in any particular chosen
phenomenon. This is often due to the purpose of
research. What is a literature review? Well essentially it’s a method of
finding, putting together, and assessing completed and recorded works by other
scientists researchers and practitioners. A literature review is important to
science and research because it helps us as scientists in all disciplines to
understand what is known about a particular topic, what is not known and
what the existing gaps are in the state of the science or the existing gaps or
knowledge areas that are lacking in a certain discipline. some other reasons
for literature review besides for research are things such as an
assignment for an academic course, updating current personal knowledge and
practice, evaluating current practices, when you develop updates and guidelines
for practice, and then also to develop work related policies. There are 7 tasks that have been documented for a
literature review so we’re going to go over these tasks individually, discuss
them and talk a little bit about how you would go about completing these
depending on the assignment. This is important because you may not need to
document all of the steps within a course paper or writing policies and
procedure. Doing a collegiate paper for a course may require some of these. However if you are planning on writing
for publication it will require all. So the first task is to choose a
research question or topic. what is it that you want to know? what
question drives the need to know more? it’s important for you to narrow down
the topic and the question in order for you to find the most pertinent and most
appropriate literature. what are you most interested in knowing
about and what have you been asked to develop more knowledge on? The next task
is to locate databases, web sites, and sources. with
databases will you be using to locate the literature. there are several
databases available online. some of these are cinahl, google scholar, Eric, pubmed, psycinfo, and there are
many others. there’s also other valid and reputable
websites that may have important data to include, perhaps in your background
section or your abstract or informative pieces prior to the review of your
literature. national, international, and government organizations, societies,
academies, foundations, and associations all have information and expert reviews,
certain position statements, or policies as well as guidelines published on their
websites that can help answer many research questions. other sources that may need to be
included are books, reference lists from other sources, or others. published
literature reviews reference lists from literature reviews are really good way
to find certain references that you may not have found in your own search and
databases so do be sure to review certain literature reviews that relate
to your topic and look at their reference list to see if you find
anything pertinent. Next you want to select keywords or search terms. these are going to be essential in
finding the literature that is most important to you. what keywords will help you find the
most relevant literature? so an example of a question or research
question for literature review may be: what are the documented holistic comfort
interventions for children related pediatric nursing procedures? now
this isn’t something that you would enter in your database as search for
keywords because it’s a long sentence. however some example keywords below
may be comfort interventions, holistic, pediatrics, children nursing procedures, childhood immunizations, and more. when
you select your keywords or search terms you want to be careful that they are not
too long in nature as this can lead to either the inability to find any
literature or a plethora of research that comes back as emerged. next you want to apply the criteria for
your search. so literature searches can result as i
said in a lot of results when you’re in a database. so what search criteria is essential to
answering your question and narrowing down the literature that you’re seeking?
some of these things may include a certain population. you may be dealing with children, you may
be dealing only with infants, or you may be dealing with the elderly or an acute
population of diagnosis or conditions. another important criteria would be
publication dates. when you are doing a literature review typically within the
last five to ten years -perhaps longer- depending on the topic that you’re
investigating. publication dates are important and certainly something that
is mentioned in your methods. so you can actually search your
literature by publication date. what types of journals will you be
looking at: only nursing, only medical, education, social psychological science,
or all of these? it may be important for your assignment for your publication or
for your policies and procedures that you only focus on nursing, medical, or it
may be important considering only an education or social or psychological
science. are you going to be looking at research articles only? in a literature
review your typically looking at what studies have been conducted and what
research results exist so you usually will be looking at
research articles. additionally you do want to make
sure that the articles you’re looking at and including are peer reviewed and that
means essentially that experts in the area of that discipline or in that area are reviewing the literature, reviewing
these manuscripts prior to being published. will you be including quantitative
literature, qualitative literature, mixed methods- which is both, or will you
be using all of these? and are you going to include international studies? next you want to apply screening methods. so when you are including literature or
research studies in your review you want to be assessing those for
scientific quality. now qualitative and quantitative research
are different and there are different methods for assessing the quality of
these types of studies for quantitative research or a more empirical
mathematical search. you would want to look at what type of study it is, what is
the internal and external validity of that study, what are the measurement instruments, do
those measurement instruments have documented validity and reliability, what kind of sampling method did they
use, generalizability, procedures and control. qualitative research is
essentially research that takes place that’s an exploration and of Human
Sciences, human behavior, and often involves interviews interviews with
populations of children, adults, and certain populations that you’re looking
to investigate. again you will look at the sampling method whether data
saturation was reached, that is a qualitative type of term and
that basically means how do you know that the all of the
interviews came to a conclusion and that the data is actually rich and reached an
end. how do they maintain rigor so basically
how did they make sure that their work was rigorous, trustworthiness, validity,
dependability, and confirmability. these are all forms of applying
screening methods and assessing the scientific quality in a qualitative
research report. I did put two references here or three
references here at the bottom that will help you understand what the meanings of these terms that I’ve put in
under quantitative and qualitative research should you need more
information on those. next you’re going to complete the review
so you want to conduct search in your database your databases with the
keywords in terms that we suggested and talked about you always want to keep
track of total articles and manuscripts that emerged regardless of how many for
the purpose of documentation later if you’re simply doing this for an academic
report or a collegiate assignment policies and procedures you may not need
to do that however when you are publishing a
literature review it’s important that you keep track of
I’m how many articles originally emerged how many abstracts that you reviewed and
then how many were included again just below here i did put that you want to
review abstracts for your inclusion exclusion search criteria and you’re
going to exclude those articles if they don’t fit the criteria exactly so if you chose to only look at studies
with adults between the ages of 18 and 25 then you’re not going to include a
research article that typically was looking at research population from 25
to 38 so you want to be sure that you’re
applying all of your our research criteria when you are looking at
including those reviews in your review including manuscripts should really be
evaluated using the screening criteria and categorized into documents folders
so you want to put a PDF file a link or a book chapter or an HTML file in
certain documents so that you can locate those really well top of the document usually by author
but create a lot of folders by theme if this is helpful for organizing your
sources you may be looking at one research question but you may have five
or six different themes of involved as you are looking for literature and drugs
matrix method is actually really helpful in organizing literature and I do have
that reference for you at the end of this presentation so next we’re going to synthesize the
results this is the juicy part of a literature
review so you’re going to summarize things you’re going to write down
resource data you’re focusing on with the methods procedures and findings are
as well as the quality of the research you want to include important and
essential details it is not a time to put a full
explanation of the entire article because a literature review is
essentially a summary of several studies have any way for you to culminate the
all of the evidence you want to interpret the findings of individual
studies and then determine the overall findings of the state of the science or
what is known and what is not known so let’s go back to our previous example
when we were looking at the research question on holistic comfort
interventions in this research review it was found that holistic comfort
interventions existed in one of four themes Music Therapy amusement and
entertainment caregiver facilitation and then a multi-faceted approach which
means more than one type of approach the author showed that younger children
experience to higher levels of pain distress and anxiety and fear so others would get that information
basically from reading the results all of the studies included in the
review if several of those studies show that children of younger age experience
high levels of pain to stress anxiety and fear that would be something that
was important and pertinent to the state of the science next the review also revealed that more
research is needed on passive TV distraction live music with winter dressings novel
toys and distractions and virtual reality distraction the authors may reach that conclusion
based on mixed results from various different types of studies noting that there were no types of
studies that included those topics or finding that several studies were done
but many different results were found it was additionally found that future
research should include investigation of comfort and groups of dis despair groups
comfort experience in various cultures and then qualitative research with
children I did list on this slide here are some
helpful literature review and research creek resources for you these are articles and or manuscripts
that focus on research critique whether it be quality of a quantitative how to
undertake a literature review critiquing quantitative research tips for scholarly
writing and making sense of statistical interpretations are conflicted research
findings and they’re just going to be a good way for you to narrow down and
understand what the literature review and research critique is all about also did list my research references
here for you that we discussed in the presentation should you have any
questions or if you would like copies of these resources that I put on this
previous slide please don’t hesitate to ask me if you’re having a difficult time
finding them my e-mail is on the first page of this presentation thank you so much for tuning in and have
a great day

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