7-Step Process of Literature Review for PhD

in this video you will learn how to do a
literature review for a PhD so let’s get started hello and welcome to my channel
my name is Tahir here and if this is your first time please hit the subscribe
button and also the notification bed to get notified whenever I post a brand new
video on this YouTube channel every Tuesday and Friday there could be many
reasons for doing a literature review but in this video we will be focusing on
doing this for a PhD degree so what is literature in our context literature is
any scholarly writing such as a journal paper a conference paper or any relevant
thesis which relates to your field of research now what is literature review
in literature review you identify the relevant literature in a particular
field of research and then you evaluate that literature with an intention to
find gaps and these gaps will be filled by your research why you do a literature
review I have talked about the importance of literature review in few
other videos and I will put a link in this video which you can watch but in a
nutshell we do literature review to demonstrate that we know this field of
research and that our contribution is original literature review is a very
important process of any research project and people have talked about
this a lot but in my opinion all this process boils down to these seven steps
I don’t want this video to be too long but I will quickly give you few tips
about these seven steps so the first step is find key word find relevant
keywords when you start your PhD most of the time you do not know the area very
well you have a little bit of idea what you are going to do but there are a lot
of keywords relevant to your field of research which you might not know and
the literature will you will be trying to find out will heavily depend on the
keywords for which you are searching so therefore you should have a stock of
keywords to search for the papers there are many tools available some tools are
not intended for scientific they are marketing tools but I have
tested these tools and these tools work very well for scientific purpose as well
so these tools are SEM rush H refs all these tools are for marketing people for
advertising people but because they deal with the keywords so they can provide
you some keywords some broader keywords they will not give you the specific
scientific terminology which you have to figure out by yourself or by talking to
your supervisor but for some students even the broader keywords are also
helpful so you can use any of these tools so these are commercial tools you
don’t have to pay money don’t buy these tools because you will not be doing this
a lot this is just an initial step and your supervisor can also help you but I
don’t want to do is I have installed a free Chrome extension that is called
keywords everywhere and whenever I search in Google that Chrome extension
gives me certain associated rl8 related keywords so this is just a start now the
second step is finding literature and the researchers here I have pulled the
researchers as well and I will talk about how to find the literature but I
will not talk about how to find the top researcher in your field because I have
discussed this in another video I will put a link here you can watch that video
for AM around nine minute and 25 seconds after that you can watch that video and
where I explain how to find the top researcher in your field and now we
talked about how to find the appropriate literature now what most student do is
they start typing certain keywords in Google Scholar are in the library
databases such as I typically explore are ProQuest whatever literature comes
they just collected no the problem here is that the little amount of literature
you will get from these the amount of articles journal papers conference paper
which you will get by doing just the keyword search will be too much you
don’t have time to read all those thousands of paper so the solution is
that you must use advanced search features there are
certain advanced search operators in every searchable database including
Google I will show you an article on the screen you can read this article but
Joshua Hardwick this guy explains what are some of the advanced search features
in Google which you can use if you are searching in Google Scholar for example
and I will show you two examples I Triple E explore database and ProQuest
database so let’s have a look at I Triple E explore database I Triple E
Explorer has other search options and if you click on this little arrow you have
command search and in command search you will have many fields and also many
operators available for advanced search you also have complex command search
example which you can read to understand how to make a complex advanced search
query in ProQuest database we have these three operators you also have source
type document type and language options so this type of Adamas search is
available in every database so make use of this advanced search know you know
how to use the advanced operator but here is the launcher the launcher is
that most scientists and researchers they do not use the relevant keywords
the true keywords and now although there are some organizations north which are
trying to and force that researchers and scientists must use some so-called
approved keywords but even then scientists do not do that they don’t use
the true relevant keywords in their papers and it is sometimes hard to find
the relevant paper and you should always keep this in mind that there might be a
very important paper still hidden from you now the third step is qualify
literature for reading you cannot read all those which you have found in the
search results even if you use the advanced search operators so how do you
qualify that you should read this literature you should read this
conference journal paper or thesis so there are few things you can do
number one you read the title and add the most only the abstract which will
take you maybe two three minutes you read these two and you omit
we’ll feel whether this is relevant or not this is one thing the second thing
you will do is you will look at the impact factor of the paper if this is a
journal paper with a high impact factor it’s just a conference paper whether
it’s by a renowned researcher from some unknown student for example so these are
few things so you have to determine whether you should keep this or not so
now you will make three different categories number one not relevant
immediately remove that from your list number two relevant number three may be
relevant or not relevant you are not sure but you think it might be relevant
these are the three categories so two of these categories relevant and might be
relevant you will bring to the next step and the next step is put it on a time
line now why this is important to put this papers on a time line this is very
important in order to build a story which we will discuss in next steps you
are not doing this literature review as an isolated thing you are not doing this
just to show what the other people have done no you have to find you are doing
this to critically analyze this paper to see what are the issues what the
discussions are going how this research is progressing so all these kind of
things and therefore you are putting this on a timeline so that you can
understand what was the starting point of this kind of research then what
happened then what happened and how the things are progressing so these are the
articles from 1990 to 95 95 to 2000 or 2000 to 2005 so all these so how far you
should go this depends on your topic your field of research but don’t go too
far and when to make this timeline there should be more papers towards the latest
period and less paper as you go towards the older years so this you should keep
in mind that the latest research is more important for you but if there are
high-impact papers which have been cited by many researchers you must include
those papers even if they are older so this is how you create a
nine of your papers no the next step is break it down break it down what break
it down your field of research and put all your papers into those sections or
those chapters are those subtopics so the best way to do that is by look at
some of the recent textbooks and in those textbooks you will find some
hierarchical charts of your field of research so that is your breakdown of
your field of research you break down your field of research into different
areas then all your papers which you have put on the timeline you will put in
these sections are in these chapters how many break down as many headings as
possible as many subheadings as possible why because when you build a story out
of it it will help you there okay these are the areas in my field of research
and these are the important papers in these areas so this is how you break
down now the next step is build a story no this is the most important step all
what you are doing is for this step not the next step because the next step the
step number seven finding gap is the nature outcome of all of these efforts
if you had the intention if you have done all these their first properly then
you will automatically find the gaps all the way you will automatically find the
gaps you are not doing literature review to just write down bits and pieces from
other people’s work into one chapter of your thesis no this will not give you
any credit you are doing the literature review to build a story so the research
started in my area in year 1990 for example these were the researchers this
is what the date these were the issues these were the problems these were the
controversies then some other researchers came into the picture they
did this they also addressed this problem they demonstrated some
experiments but they couldn’t find this thing which I am trying to address and
this story seems very easy but actually this is not the only way you can build
this story is by rigorous X we’re reading there is no other method
no shortcut for this you cannot read an abstract of someone else’s you can build
your own story no you have to extensively read all these papers which
you have selected in your timeline and here what I do is what I suggest is and
I will show you on the screen a mind map kind of thing you can make this in any
software there is a free software available called free mind I had made
this own free mind so on this screen you can see that these are some of the
critical papers which you will put from your timeline to this mind map why I
call it mind map because these are those papers which should always stay in your
mind be so familiar with these papers because these papers will build your
story you put these selected papers which are
part of your story from your timeline into this diagram into this mind map
then you can assign our relevancy score that this is highly relevant this is the
impact factor of these papers so now this is the story which you will be
writing on a separate chapter and I would suggest that your literature
review should be a separate chapter it is not a compulsion it is not a
requirement but it is a good practice I support this practice so whenever you
read those papers which you have selected for your story for your mind
map you must read those papers then make notes in English or in your own language
wherever you are comfortable with make notes highlight those parts which are
important so that when you are building a story for your chapter of thesis you
should be you should feel very comfortable and now if you have done all
this then automatically you will find certain gaps and then you have to link
those gaps with your research and how you are addressing those gaps so if you
do this this will prove that your work is original nobody else has done and you
should be awarded a PhD degree so there could be many questions about around
these topics so if you have any questions please put in the
comment section below and I will definitely answer those questions I hope
that you like this video if so please give it a thumbs up thanks for watching
and see you next time you

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